Intro to Psychotherapy #1

Ethical Considerations in Mental Health Practice
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 38
Terms in this set (38)
Provide explanation to best of ability
Seek the individuals assent
Consider such persons' preferences and best interests
Obtain permission from legal guardian
When court mandated, clients are informed of this mandate, and any limits of confidentiality are discussed before proceeding.
Psychologists document consent, permission, and assent.
Egoonly part of the mind that comes in contact with reality, it grows out during infancySuperegopart of the personality that acts as a moral center, it doesn't have to do with being realistic or pleasure, no contact with the outside worldIdit's main goal is to reduce anxiety by satisfying basic desires (newborn baby in you, just seeking pleasure and gratification)Freudian PsychoanalysisTreatment: bringing the unconscious into consciousness through: Confrontation Clarification InterpretationFreud's Psychosexual Stages of Developmentoral stage anal stage phallic stage latency stage genital stageOral Stageage 0-1 the mouth is the first organ that provides an infant with pleasure, the sexual portion of this stage is breastfeeding (smoking, gum chewing and nail-biting)Anal Stageages 1-2 the anus becomes an erogenous zone, this coincides with toilet training(orderliness, obsessiveness, and rigidity)Phallic Stageages 3-4 the genital area becomes the primary erogenous zone, this is the first dichotomy between males and females (when they realize they're different from one another) (vanity, exhibitionism, and pride)Latency Stagefrom 5 years until puberty babies are weird sexual creatures until they're 5. It's the parent's job to get them through the stages and repress the sexual urges and redirect the energy to positive things (homework, school, other activities)Genital Stagepuberty to adulthood a person directs their sexual pleasure towards others and reproduction becomes possibleJung's Analytical Psychotherapyelaborated on the unconscious; introduced archetypeAdler's Individual Psychologyall behavior is purposeful and motivated by future goals, rather than past experiencesErik Erikson's Psychosocial StagesInfancy (0-1)/basic trust v. mistrust Early childhood (1-3)/autonomy v. shame Play age (3-6)/initiative v. guilt School-age (6-12)/industry v. inferiority Adolescence (12-19)/identity v. confusion Early adulthood (20-25)/intimacy v. isolation Adulthood (26-64)/generativity v. stagnation Old age (65-death)/integrity v. despairMelanie KleinObject Relations Theorist (good breast, bad breast)Otto KernbergObject Relations Theorist conceptualization of Borderline PD - Introduced concept of "splitting"Heinz KohutObject Relations Theorist conceptualization of Narcissistic PD, as well as other personality pathologyMargaret Mahler's View of Object Relationschildren pass through a series of three major developmental stages; normal autism (from birth until age 3 or 4 weeks) - the baby's needs are being met, the baby is a narcissistic object and is unaware that other people exist normal symbiosis (4th week-5th month) - babies begin to realize that they can't satisfy themselves and their mother is a separate being separation-individuation (5th-36th month) - children become psychologically separated from their mothers and develop their own thoughts and feelingsGestalt TheoryThe idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its parts. Gestalt's therapy is concerned with energy within the body (muscle tension, unrest, physical agitation, etc.) This is considered to be energy "blockage," and a target is made of reconciling of these blockages, incorporating healthier habits.Gestalt's TherapyHelp the client achieve integration of the self. Client outcome goals: Move towards increased awareness if themselves Assume new ownership of their experiences Develop skills/values that will allow clients to satisfy their needs Become more aware of their senses Learn to accept responsibility for behavior Be able to ask for/give helpGestalt's View of Maladaptive BehaviorMaladaptive Behavior: growth disorder; abandonment of the self for the self-image. Neuroses develop as a result of a disturbance in the boundaries between the self-and the external environment.Gestalt's 5 Basic Boundary DisturbancesIntrojection Projection Retroflection Deflection ConfluenceIntrojectionwhen a person swallows whole concepts, accepting without understanding. Buying someone else's beliefs without assimilating them into the individuals's existing beliefs.Projectiondisowning aspects of the self by assigning them to others or the environmentRetroflectiondoing to oneself what one wants to do to others.Deflectiondistraction or veering away from contact with the present moment, via defusion, using humor, abstract generalization, and questions, rather than statements.Confluenceabsence of a boundary between the self and the environment. Promotes intolerance of anything that differs between self and others.Phenomenological Inquirypaying attention to what is occurring nowStages of Gestalt TherapyDiscovery: Reaching new realizations about life; shedding new light on old situations. Accommodation: client begins trying out new behaviors/interpersonal approaches in session. Client is experimenting with new approaches, and may be beginning to bring those practices to outside situations. Assimilation: Clients begin to demonstrate/feel a growing influence over his/her environment. Skills become more integrated and fluid when confronting new challenges. Eventually confidence emerges, and life's surprises are managed with more mastery