Chapter 12 sections 2 & 3

Reaction and Revolution after the age of Napoleon
Congress of Vienna
A group of European leaders who gathered after France's defeat to re-establish royal dominance and redraw Europe's boundaries, Countries - Great Britain, Austria, prussia and Russia. Goal - restoring the old order.
Prince Klemens von Metternick
leader of congress of vienna, Austrian foreign minister.
Principle of Legitimacy
meant that lawful monarchs from the royal families that had ruled before Napoleon would be restored to their positions of power in order to keep peace and stability in Europe
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
What did Conservatives believe?
the revolution was harmful to all of Europe
Principal of Intervention
great powers have right to send armies to squash enemies (revolutionary efforts that threaten power) in order to restore legitimate monarchs
a political philosophy based largly on Enlightenment principles, Held that people should be as free as possible from government restraint
List the beliefs of the liberals
protection of civil liberties, basic rights like equality before the law, Freedom of assembly,press, and speech. these rights should be guaranteed by a written document such as American Bill of Rights, Most wanted religous tolerance, seperation of church and state; right of peaceful opposition to the government laws made by representative assembly elected by qualified voters.
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it, the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other, the aspiration for national independence felt by people under foreign domination
Louis philippe
Charles X's cousin and duke of Orléans who was placed on throne by middle class; accepted the Constitutional Charter of 1814 (which protected revolution gains)
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.
universal male suffrage
allowed all free white males to vote and hold office without having to own land or belong to a particular religious group
second republic
After the 1848 revolution in France, which caused Louis-Philippe to flee, this government system was put in place by revolutionists and guaranteed universal male suffrage. Louis-Napoleon (later known as Napoleon III), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was overwhelmingly elected president, and France enjoyed a period of stability and prosperity. This government was later overthrown in yet another coup d'etat.
Louis Napoleon
Was not only the first president of the French Republic (for two terms), but was also the last emperor. As emperor, he was called Napoleon III and he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.
German confederation
consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia (b/c of their size); the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.
multinational state
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Name the different nationalities in the austrian empire
germany, poles
Revolutions in Austrian empire
Revolts in Italy
Frankfurt assembly
1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany., The first freely elected parliament in Germany. Its existence can be attributed to the 'March Revolution' Its purpose was to design a constitution for a unified German nation. Offered crown of Germany to Frederick William of Prussia; who refused. Ultimately disintegrates because it can't muster the power to lead itself.
the region of northwestern Italy
Crimean War
a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia
King Emmanuel II
The King of Piedmont that appointed Cavour his Prime Minister and worked to unite Italy., Became Piedmont king of the united Italy; Garibaldi wanted to gain control of Rome, but Cavour feared the France would declare war, seeing as the papacy would be at stake, and told him not to. He was a true patriot and agreed, and Italy agreed to unite instead of civil war.
Camillo cavour
known for leading Italian unification, he was named prime minister of Sardinia in 1852. Joined Napoleon III to drive Austria out of the northern Italian provinces in 1858
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882), the "sword", used guerilla tactics, won Sicily, and Naples, republic, turns over land to Victor Emmanuel for sake of Italy
Red shirts
Garibaldi's army of 1000 red-shirted volunteers
a former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
king William
king of Prussia, who tripled the size of the military, and ran the government like the military, granted excessive grants, claimed Justice.
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
real politics
Realistic policies of the needs of the state
Franco- Prussian War 1870
bismarck rallies german against napoleon III when he opposes a prussian king on the spanish throne, france not prepared for war, prussian victory in a few weeks
Napoleon III
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.
the title of the Holy Roman Emperors or the emperors of Austria or of Germany until 1918
hapsburg's (Austrian) Empire
after the defeat of the Turks in 1687 Austria took control of all of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia, thus establishing the Austrian Empire in southeastern Europe. It remained a collection of territories held together by the Habsburg emperor, who was archduke of Austria, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary.
Compromise of 1867
The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph's attempt, in 1866, to deal with the demands for greater autonomy from the ethnic minorItles within the Hapsburg Empire. The compromise set up a dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, where Franz Joseph served as the ruler of both Austria and Hungary, each of which had its own parliament.
Francis joseph
leader of Austria and King of Hungary; he helps create and refrom new type of country called Austria-Hungary
Czar Alexander II
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
freeing someone from the control of another
a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times, men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection
the doctrine that calls for the abolition of slavery,The militant effort to do away with slavery. It began in the north in the 1700's. Becoming a major issue in the 1830's, it dominated politics by the 1840's. Congress became a battle ground between the pro and anti slavery forces
withdraw from an organization or communion
American civil war
Conflict between the Northern US states (Union) and the Southern states that seceded and formed the Confederacy 1861-65. It was important in the development of a separate Canadian identity. fought over Slavery north - NAY, south - YAY
British North American Act
an act passed by the British Parliament that established Canada as an independent self governing country