25 terms

sociology midterm 6

26. According to Max Weber, economic factors are very important to social change in society. What other variable is involved in social change?
a. ideas and values
b. cohesion
c. government
d. the ability to accept social change
27. "The better the grades Sheri gets in school, the better paying job she is likely to get." In this example, grades are the _________ variable and occupational income is the ________ variable.
a. causative; correlative
b. dependent; independent
c. independent; dependent
d. hypothetical; control
e. None of the above; there is no relationship between grades and income.
28. Schools teach us various academic subjects. However, they are also involved in the socialization process in more latent ways, exemplified by their emphasis on:
a. learning the importance of triangulation for measurement analysis
b. understanding the significance of the femoral artery
c. teaching students the importance of observing rules
d. making certain students learn Shakespearean rhyme
e. none of the above
29. The physical separation of a racial or ethnic group is called:
a. genocide
b. assimilation
c. segregation
d. pluralism
e. multiculturalism
30. The idea of a sociological imagination originated with:
a. Anthony Giddens
b. C. Wright Mills
c. Émile Durkheim
d. Karl Marx
e. Max Weber
31. What is the difference between the terms sex and gender?
a. Sex is a verb and gender is a noun.
b. Sex is a biological term; gender is a sociological term.
c. Sex refers to men; gender refers to women.
d. Sex refers to aggressive behavior; gender refers to expressive behavior.
e. We value sex and devalue gender.
32. Social groups of similar age and social background are known as:
a. age groups
b. socializing groups
c. peer groups
d. peer grades
e. social grades
33. Political communities with clearly defined borders (rather than vague frontiers) in which the governments have extensive power over citizens' lives are known as:
a. barbarian empires
b. nonindustrial civilizations
c. traditional states
d. nation-states
e. communism
34. Society is:
a. a set of abstract ideals
b. a set of concrete rules of behavior
c. a system of interrelationships that connects individuals
d. guidelines of behavior when interacting with people from different cultures
e. global interconnectedness
35. Which theory draws primary attention to the exploitation of poor countries by rich ones?
a. market-oriented theory
b. modernization theory
c. dependency theory
d. world-systems theory
e. state-centered theory
36. Social control has both _________ and _________ mechanisms to ensure conformity. These range from ostracizing a person from a group to imprisonment.
a. informal; desensitive
b. informal; formal
c. informal; scripts
d. inside; outside
____ 37. Which sociologist showed that social factors exert a fundamental influence on suicidal behavior?
a. Anthony Giddens
b. Émile Durkheim
c. George Herbert Mead
d. Robert K. Merton
e. W. E. B. Du Bois
38. As men usually have more ________ than women, women are more often the victims of sexual harassment.
a. sex drive
b. power
c. intelligence
d. automobiles
e. facial and chest hair
39. Sex segregation results in ________ for ________.
a. higher pay; both men and women in predominantly female jobs
b. lower pay; both men and women in predominantly female jobs
c. higher pay; men in female jobs over men in male jobs
d. the same pay; women in female jobs as men in male jobs
e. the same pay; women in male jobs as men in female jobs
40. In Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies, Margaret Mead observed variability among gender roles. She was the first social scientist to reinforce the idea that:
a. women should not be approaching these ideas without a male involved
b. women and men are equal in all societies
c. gender and sex are two different concepts and should be analyzed as such
d. gender and sex are the same concept and cannot be separated
e. women and men have trouble differentiating between sex and gender
41. The systematic domination of females by males is called:
a. gender
b. sex
c. matriarchy
d. patriarchy
e. malefaction
42. Assessing a society by its own cultural standards is known as:
a. ethnocentrism
b. cultural relativism
c. ethnocreationism
d. sociobiology
e. culturobiology
43. What would a symbolic interactionist say is involved in nearly all social interactions?
a. conflict
b. an exchange of functions
c. an exchange of symbols
d. a feeling of despair or aimlessness
e. rational choice
44. Any difference in status, power, and prestige between men and women in groups, collectives, and societies is known as:
a. patriarchy
b. matriarchy
c. masculinity
d. berdache
e. gender inequality
45. What played the fundamental role in developing the capitalistic outlook, according to Max Weber?
a. organic solidarity
b. capitalism
c. religious values
d. symbolic interaction
e. feminism
46. Sociology is the scientific study of:
a. human social life
b. groups
c. societies
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
47. If one event or situation produces another, the two are said to have a:
a. hypothesis
b. causal relationship
c. methodology
d. symbolic interaction
e. theoretical approach
48. Dependency theories rely on theories developed by:
a. Max Weber
b. Émile Durkheim
c. Immanuel Wallerstein
d. Karl Marx
e. C. Wright Mills
49. The Internet is an exciting tool that facilitates communication between people. What is a latent advantage to electronic communication?
a. It increases direct, rather than indirect, interaction.
b. It increases the isolation of individuals.
c. It masks a person's ascribed status.
d. It encourages face-to-face interaction.
e. None of the above; in truth, there are no advantages to the Internet.
50. Gender socialization begins:
a. at birth
b. around age two or three years
c. when the child starts school
d. at puberty
e. None of the above; gender is an inborn trait.