RWH Test #1 Friday September 19th
You should study this flashcard set to prepare for your first test.
Terms in this set (87)
Abbreviations for Before the Common Era and the Common Era respectively, used as exact equivalents of the Christian designations before Christ (B.C.) and anno domini (A.D., a Latin phrase meaning year of our Lord).
the landmass made up of Africa and Eurasia together. This geographical expression serves as a helpful tool in discussing large-scale historical developments that cut across the traditionally-defined continental divisions of Africa, Asia, and Europe.
Social interactions, Political situations, Interactions between humans and the environment, Cultural events, and Economic themes
Development and transformation of social structures
• Gender roles and relations
•Family and kinship
•Racial and ethnic constructions
•Social and economic classes
State-building,expansion, and conflict
•Political structures and forms of governance
•Nations and nationalism
•Revolts and revolutions
•Regional, trans-regional, and global structures and organizations
Interaction between humans and the environment
•Demography and disease
•Patterns of settlement
Development and interaction of cultures
•Belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies
•Science and technology
•The arts and architecture
Creation, expansion, and interaction of economic systems
•Agricultural and pastoral production
•Trade and commerce
•Capitalism and socialism
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
1st characteristic of a Civilization
Generation of reliable surpluses - Agricultural technology allows farmers to produce more than their families need. In the earliest civilizations, farmers supported many city dwellers and filled food storage houses to provide a reliable food source in lean times.
2nd characteristic of a Civilization
Highly specialized occupations - Whereas village and town life was characterized by division of labor, occupational specializations in the early civilizations were far more complex, including jobs in government, trade, merchandise, and religion.
3rd characteristic of a Civilization
Clear social class distinctions - With the growing complexity of occupations, the early civilizations set status distinctions among them, so that big differences appeared in prestige levels and wealth.
4th characteristic of a Civilization
Growth of cities - Population centers in the ancient civilizations varied in size, but many were far larger than any that had been seen before. As economic, political, social, and cultural life grew more interrelated, some towns grew into cities.
5th characteristic of a Civilization
Complex, formal governments - The early need for government to coordinate agricultural activities became even greater as more economic activities developed and cities grew larger.
6th characteristic of a Civilization
Long-distance trade - The early civilizations first built internal trade networks, and eventually developed long distance trade networks among different civilizations. This trade stimulated economic development, encouraged cultural development, and accentuated social class distinctions.
7th characteristic of a Civilization
Organized writing systems - Most early civilizations developed forms of writing that enabled traders, religious leaders, and political leaders to communicate.
framework of society--social institutions, organizations, groups, statuses, and roles, cultural beliefs, and institutionalized norms--which adds order and predictability to our private lives
The techniques of engineering and applied science for commercial and industrial purposes. Many fundamental technologies -the smelting and working of metals, spinning and weaving of textiles, and the firing of clay, for example - were developed at the dawn of civilization, long before any concept of science existed.
The science of metals; their extraction from ores, purification and alloying, heat treatment, and working
permanent moves to new locations that have occurred on local, regional, and global levels.
The spread of cultural practices or technological innovations within a community or from one community to another.
A term used to describe a certain kind of development of a human society characterized by advanced agriculture, long-distance trade, occupational specialization, and urbanization.
An established pattern of human social behavior in a given society--such as marriage, family, or government.
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials.
The distinction between different social groups according to the ways in which they make their living, particularly between those who own means of production (land, factories, machines) and those who do not (who sell their labor power to cultivate the land or work in the factories)
Movement between different social positions within a stratification system., The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
a group or class of persons enjoying superior social or economic status
A social system in which the father or eldest male is head of the household, having authority over women and children. _____ also refers to a system of government by males, and to the dominance of men in social or cultural systems. It may also include title being traced through the male line.
1. ____ is the exchange of goods and services.
2. Business, trade, and retailing are all common synonyms.
This practice involves modifying animals and plants for human uses. Domesticated animals are tamed and bred so they become accustomed to living in captivity and helping human beings in some capacity, such as serving as sources of food or goods (for example, pelts). Domesticated animals may also perform work for human beings.Domesticated plants are cultivated and grown as crops, such as wheat.
-A system by which a society ranks and categorizes people in a hierarchy
From its origin as a city-state in Italy in the 8th century BC, to its rise as an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa and fall in the 5th century AD, the political history of Ancient Rome was typically closely entwined with its military history.
This centralized form of government practices military control of a territory using a variety of techniques including diplomacy,
extensive supply lines, building fortifications, defensive roads and structures administrative hubs, bureaucracy, and the enlistment of local populations as officers or soldier.The Roman empire and the Qin and Han dynasties are examples of _______
This system of government is characterized by the concentration of government power In a capital or administrative hubs that exert control over broad geographic areas. ____________ became common with the emergence of major empires in Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean .
This system of government is characterized by shared power over multiple regional political hubs. Examples include the ancient Greek and ancient Indian civilizations. ___________ declined as imperial empires emerged in Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean.
This Roman social class was made up of wealthy aristocrats who controlled the Roman political system during the Roman
Republic's earliest years.
This Roman leader proclaimed himself dictator for life in 46 B.C.E. Caesar centralized Rome's government and military and created jobs, but his great power soon led to his assassination by fellow Roman politicians. Marks the end of the Roman Republic.
The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts to bring water from distant sources into their cities and towns, supplying public baths, latrines, fountains and private households. Waste water was removed by complex sewage systems and released into nearby bodies of water, keeping the towns clean and free from effluent. Some aqueducts also provided water for mining operations and the milling of grain.
Bread and Circuses
Phrase for the Roman practice of providing free spectacles and food to the common people to distract them from their miserable lives.
did 3 things to preserve Christianity: legalized Christianity, moved the capital of Rome all the way east to present day Turkey, convened the council of Nicea - decided on which gospels and teachings were to be compiled into the new testament (became emperor in 324CE)
the plundering of a place by an army or mob; usually involves destruction and slaughter
extending the authority of national government over formerly autonomous people whether by force or persuasion.
This dynasty, founded by Qin Shihuangdi, reunited China and ended the Era of Warring States through reliance on Legalism.
Although the Qin dynasty only lasted for the duration of Qin's rule between 221 B.C.E. and 207 B C E it started China's tradition of centralized imperial rule by instituting a centralized bureaucracy. Emperor Qin also connected existing defensive walls in the north into a single system, which today is called the Great Wall.
mandate of heaven
This Chinese belief stated that the gods had granted power to the political ruler and also had the ability to revoke that power. This revocation could be seen through events such as floods. peasant uprisings, and nomadic invasions.
This Chinese dynasty flourished between 206 B.C.E. and 220 C.E. The Han emphasized filial piety, or respect for one's parents, as part of a Confucian belief system. Among the Han's most important emperors was Wu Di, who built roads and canals, established a Confucian imperial university, and introduced civil service exams.
Han dynasty gender roles
Under the Han's patriarchal social organization, women were legally subordinate to their fathers or husbands. A woman's greatest goal was to marry well and thus help her family. Upper-class women were often educated in literature, music, and the arts.
Similarity #3 between Rome and Han
Both developed a competent bureaucracy that allowed the empires to thrive for a number of years. Roman bureaucracy more vulnerable to corruption due to class tensions and patron-client system. Han was more merit-based.
Difference #1 between Rome and Han
Longevity and Persistence. Rome's empire rose, fell, and disappeared, although it lived on as a concept. China's empire has lasted for the past 2000 years. Dynasties have come and gone, sometimes the empire has broken into fragments, and sometimes it has been ruled by conquering "barbarians," but finally the empire endured as a single political entity. Today, although there is no emperor, China's geopolitical unity continues.
This term, which means "Roman Peace," refers to the 250 years of relative peace in the Mediterranean region ushered in by Emperor Augustus in the early 1st century C.E. and maintained by the political, economic, cultural, and military might of the Roman Empire.
Octavian (Ceasar Augustus)
the first Roman emperor, 27 B.C.E.-14 C.E. Octavian was the great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar, and a great
general who brought unity to Rome after it had experienced prolonged and bloody civil wars. Early in his reign Octavian assumed the name "Caesar Augustus," which means "most revered emperor." He led Rome into a 200 year period of peace and prosperity (Pax Romana). This created conditions for spread of early Christianity
Emperor Wu Di
Han emperor who had a problem recruiting qualified people for government posts because there was no uniform system of public education. Established an imperial university to educate government officials in 124 B.C.E. Enrollment began at 3,000 students and rose to more than 30,000 students during the later Han.
tributary system of trade
Used by the Han Empire, this system of trade rested on the belief that the Han did not trade with inferior neighboring peoples but instead received tribute, or payments of goods or money, from them. When these groups brought tribute to the Han court, the Han gave them trade goods in return.
Similarity #1 between Rome and Han
Both Rome and China were huge empires with long borders to defend. Each built walls and maintained a chain of forts and
garrisons. Both spent a great deal of time, effort, and money trying to defend their borders from nomadic attack, and both
Similarity #2 between Rome and Han
The economies of both societies were based on agriculture, but both grew into wealthy urban-based empires.
Similarity #4 between Rome and Han
Both were expansionist empires, assimilating many diverse peoples into their culture.
Similarity #5 between Rome and Han
Overextension. Both empires suffered their greatest challenges in confronting simultaneously the strains of over-expansion and
the subsequent internal revolts that were triggered by the costs. In Rome these dual problems, along with the barbarian invasions, finally precipitated the end of the empire in the west. In China they led to the loss of the Mandate of Heaven and the downfall of dynasties.
Similarity #6 between Rome and Han
Public Works: Most Chinese technology centered around control of water in order to prevent famine, while Roman technology included roads, aqueducts, and the coliseum. Both empires attempted to build public works that improved the lives of citizens instead of works with no public utility (i.e. - tombs)
This form of government centralized power in the hands of one leader, typically called an emperor.. _______s typically spanned large geographical distances and controlled great quantities of wealth and resources.
A select group of 300 patricians; in the era of the Roman Republic the Senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire.
Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders, Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders
An empire established by Augustus in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern or Byzantine Empire. at its peak lands in Europe and Africa and Asia were ruled by ancient Rome.
Fall of the Western Roman Empire
This event occurred in 476B.C.E. and was the result of numerous internal and external factors. Internal factors included decreasing tax and trade revenues, numerous power struggles at top political levels, and plagues that greatly reduced the farming population.The division of the empire into western and eastern portions also weakened the Western Roman Empire. Invading nomadic warriors also aided in the empire's eventual collapse.
Steal goods from (a place or person), typically using force and in a time of war or civil disorder
The Han Dynasty improved this massive Chinese defensive structure during the Classical Age. The purpose of the _____ was to protect China from the frequent invasions of the nomadic Xiongnu people.
Gov't workers (bureaucrats) appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance from the Han Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty. These officials mostly came from the well-educated men known as the ______. These men had earned academic degrees by passing the rigorous imperial examinations. The scholar-officials were schooled in calligraphy and Confucian texts. They dominated the politics of China until 1911.
The exclusive worship of a single god; introduced by the Jews into western civilization.
The concept of a divine spirit: the God, the Goddess, Allah, Jesus, Buddha, and so on
People in agrarian societies who produce food from the land, using traditional farming methods of plow and animal power. Farm workers in agrarian societies.
of or relating to the most highly developed stage of an earlier civilization and its culture
A _______ is a form of government in which the citizens choose their leaders and the people (or at least a part of its people) have an impact on its government.
gender roles in early religion
This belief system (not a religion) was founded by the Chinese philosopher _____. According to ________, people should strive to have ren, or appropriate feelings, and Ii, or correct thoughts. _______ focuses on filial piety, or respect for
one's parents, as well as the veneration of ancestors. _________ greatly influenced the development of Chinese culture and government, as well as the cultures of East Asia.
1. lived by two ideals: wanted to produce excellent individuals who could be social leaders, and wanted to create a
2. believed each human being was capable of being good
3. lived and wrote during the Era of Warring States.
a collection of sayings of Confucius compiled by his disciples; one of the four books.
Confucianism and merchants
The merchants are ranked the lowest in the Classical Chinese Confucian social order due to the fact that they do not produce
anything, only profit from others' creations. The merchant class was often more affluent than farmers and artisans, but they are still on the bottom of the social order.
This belief focuses on the worship of family ancestors and is fundamental to Confucian philosophy and other traditional belief systems.
Confucius believed that the five basic relations should be characterized by ____, or kindness and benevolence. Outward behavior that reflects ___ includes courtesy, respect,diligence and loyalty.
proper behavior, believed if _____ was followed then society would have order and peace
filial piety (Confucianism)
__________ is the devotion of the individual to family and the strong ties that hold families together. _____obliges children to
respect their parents and obey family elders, look after their welfare, support them in old age, and remember them as revered
ancestors after their deaths. (Confucianism)
5 key relationships
1. Father to Son - There should be kindness in the father, and filial piety in the son.
2. Elder Brother to Younger Brother - There should be gentility (politeness) in the elder brother, and humility in the
3. Husband to Wife - The husband should be benevolent, and the wife should listen.
4. Elder to Junior - There should be consideration among the elders and deference among the juniors.
5. Ruler to Subject - There should be benevolence among the rulers and loyalty among the subjects.
This monotheistic religion is based on the teachings of the Jewish-born Jesus as relayed through the writings of his followers in the New Testament. In time, Christianity spread throughout the world and developed many groups, including Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, Coptic (northern and eastern Africa), and Nestorian (Far East).
Jesus of Nazareth
Who: Central figure of Christianity. Was regarded as a teacher, healer, and Messiah.
Was baptized by John the Baptist, crucified under the rule of Pontius Pilate and resurrected from the dead. He gave promise of salvation. Which attracted many followers to come
Where: Galilean Village of Nazareth
When: Born between 6-4 B.C.E
St Paul (originally Saul) of Tarsus
originally known as Saul, a known Pharisaic Christian-hunter. he was a Greek-speaking Jew and Roman citizen who underwent a
miraculous conversion experience and became the most important proponent of Christianity in the 50s and 60s. it is believe that he was executed while imprisoned by the Romans.
the distinctively Christian scriptures, written in Greek,that were added to the Jewish Bible by the Christian church.
literally, "good news," a term used both for the Christian message in general, and, more specifically, for the written narratives of the life of Jesus.
Edict of Milan
This declaration, issued by the Roman Emperor Constantine in 313 C.E., legalized Christianity throughout the Roman Empire.
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