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Q3 Benchmark Vocabulary
Terms in this set (52)
body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
Transports oxygen, waste, nutrients, hormones, heat, etc... around the body
system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs
includes skin hair nails sweat glands and oil glands
the network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
enables movement of the body and internal organs
Protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to support movement. Blood cells are made in bone marrow. Made up of bones and joints.
the system that removes liquid waste (sweat and urine) from your body and controls water balance.
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
A reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
Advantages of asexual reproduction
1. no need mate; can live isolate
2. numerous offspring quickly
3. no energy needed for maintenance of reproductive structures
4. good with stable environment
Disadvantages of asexual reproduction
lack of genetic diversity, harmful mutations are passed to all offspring, competition for space and nutrients.
Advantages of sexual reproduction
creates a lot of genetic variation among offspring, offspring can adapt to environmental changes
disadvantage of sexual reproduction
have to find and compete for mates, more time and effort, less offspring created.
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Mitosis: one division forming 2 identical cells (clones); Meiosis: two divisions forming 4 genetically different cells
reproductive cells. Male; sperm. Female; egg.
number of chromosomes in human cells
46 in somatic cells (ex skin, liver, heart, brain...); 23 in sex cells (ex sperm & eggs)
An error in meiosis or mitosis in which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate properly from each other. Ending with daughter cells that have too many or too few chromosomes.
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Central Dogma of Biology
DNA codes for RNA, which guides the synthesis of proteins
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change in protein produced.
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Mutation in which a single base is replaced, potentially altering the gene product.
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
Outcome of mutations
can be harmful, beneficial, or neutral. Mutations can be a source of variation and help organisms adapt.
Different forms of a gene
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
having two different alleles for a particular gene. Ex. Aa
Having two identical alleles for a particular gene. Ex AA or aa
diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross
A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
something an animal does that helps it survive. Ex. hibernation.
an adaptation of an organism's body parts or its coloring.
a physical or chemical event that occurs within the body of an organism and enables survival
mechanisms that are unique to certain organisms that increases the chance of reproductive success; ex. seeds, eggs, asexual reproduction
1) Pollen falls on stigma
2) Pollen germinates
3) Pollen tube grows down through style
4) Two sperm enter ovary and enter ovule
5) Egg is fertilized by one sperm and becomes embryo
6) Other sperm combines with polar bodies and fertilizes to form endosperm (food storage for embryo)
7) Ovule develops into a seed and ovary into a fruit
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
Composition of Air
Nitrogen 78%, Oxygen 21%, Other Gases 1%( argon, carbon dioxide & water vapor, etc.)
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
cycling of matter
matter is constantly cycled between living and nonliving parts of the environment through processes like photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and nitrogen fixation.
natural or synthetic materials used in medical applications
applies engineering principles and design to the biology and medical arena to improve health care and the lives of those with medical impairments
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