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100 terms

Biology Chapters 15-16

vestigial structures
In whales, the pelvis and femur are
Wallace's essay on evolution
Why was Darwin prompted to publish his theory of evolution
observations of many species in their geographical location
Darwin began to formulate his theory of evolution after
variations best suited to the environment
According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have
a detailed record of evolution
Charles Darwin viewed the fossil record as what
a change in a population's allele frequencies
One similarity between natural selection and genetic drift is that both events
somewhat similar species, with traits that suited their particular environments
On the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed
natural variations that are present in a species
When farmers select animals or plants to use for breeding, they look for what
directional selection
When individuals at only one end of a bell curve of phenotype frequencies have high fitness, the result is what
many possible genotypes, producing many possible phenotypes
A polygenic trait can have what
100 percent
In a population, the sum of the relative frequencies of all alleles for a particular trait is equal to what
geographic isolation
The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water is called what
natural variation and natural selection
Darwin's theory of evolution is based on what ideas
survival of the fittest
When lions prey on a herd of antelopes, some antelopes are killed and some escape. What part of Darwin's concept of natural selection might be used to describe this situation
birds' different-shaped beaks
The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on the Galápagos Islands displayed different structural adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin noted was the
the actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures
Lamarck's theory of evolution includes the concept that new organs in a species appear as a result of what
genetic drift
What event do biologists consider a random change
directional selection (18)
In Rosemary and Peter Grant's study of the Galápagos finches, what process was encouraged by ecological competition during the dry season
Natural selection acts directly on
preserved remains of ancient organisms
People of Charles Darwin's time understood that fossils were
prevents interbreeding between the populations
The geographic isolation of two populations of a species tends to increase differences between their gene pools because it does what
temporal isolation
What situation might develop in a population having some plants whose flowers open at midday and other plants whose flowers open late in the day
inheritance of acquired characteristics
In each generation, the wings of experimental fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on what
body structure can change according to the actions of the organism
What is a major concept included in Lamarck's theory of evolution
he was disturbed by its findings, which challenged fundamental scientific beliefs
Why might Darwin have hesitated to publish his concept of evolution by natural selection
species change over time
Darwin's theory of evolution suggests that
originated from a common ancestor
Charles Darwin's observation that finches of different species on the Galápagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports the hypothesis that these finches
a common ancestor
The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. Most biologists would probably explain this fact on the basis of
a process of change of change in species over time
Define evolution by natural selection
physical or behavioral
An adaptation is an inherited characteristic that can be
On the Origin of Species
In 1859, Charles Darwin published his revolutionary scientific ideas in a work with this title
chance events
This is not a way in which natural selection affects the distribution of phenotypes
Gene shuffling includes the independent movement of chromosomes during meiosis as well as what
two phenotypes
A single-gene trait that has two alleles and that shows a simple dominant-recessive pattern will result in how many phenotypes
two species do not interbreed because of temporal isolation
American toad breeds earlier in the spring than the Fowler's toad. The reason for this is
they are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment
Statement consistent to theory of natural selection
mating that is not random
disturbs equilibrium in a large population
possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness
Individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to the
transmission of acquired characteristics
This concept is not included in modern theory of evolution
arrival of founding population
first step that occurred in the speciation of the Galapagos finches
disruptive selection
One group of birds has short, parrotlike beak. Another has a long, narrow beak. What happened
Thomas Malthus
The idea that only famine, disease, and war could prevent the endless growth of human populations was presented by who
75 percent
If an allele makes up one fourth of a population's alleles for a given trait, its relative frequency is
Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred
James Hutton and Charles Lyell's work was important to Darwin because these scientists suggested that what
knowledge about the structure of DNA
Darwin's concept of evolution was not influenced by what
a large population size
The genetic equilibrium of a population cannot be disturbed by a what
James Hutton
One scientist who attempted to explain how rock layers form and change over time was who
Earth is very old
What did Charles Darwin learn from reading the work of James Hutton and Charles Lyell
Whether the mutation makes some lizards more fit for their environment than other lizards
If a mutation introduces a new skin color in a lizard population, which factor might determine whether the frequency of the new allele will increase
Natural selection on beak size and shape is driven by available food
True statement about evolution in Galapagos finches
In genetic drift, allele frequencies change because of what
gene shuffling during gamete formation
In many kinds of organisms, inheritable differences are due mostly to what
fewer phenotypes
Compared to a polygenic trait, a single-gene trait tends to have
share a common ancestor with sea stars
Modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that primitive vertebrates
gene pool
The combined genetic information of all members of a particular population is the population's
gene shuffling and mutations
The two main sources of genetic variation are
no changes in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool
Interbreeding among members of a population results in what
no movement into or out of population
One of the conditions required to maintain genetic equilibrium
have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed that organisms
all mating is random
The allele frequencies of a population are more likely to remain unchanged if
the founder effect
The type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals
widow's peak in humans
An example of a single-gene trait is
homologous structures such as wings and arms
The same kinds of cells that grow in similar patterns in different but related organisms produce
Finches prefer mates with similar in size to their own
What did Peter and Rosemary Grant learn about mate choice from the Galapagos finches
A change in a sequence of DNA is called a what
genetic equilibrium
The situation in which allele frequencies of a population remain constant is called what
Earth is many millions of years old
James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work suggests that what
on the Galapagos Islands
During his voyage on the Beagle, Charles Darwin made many observations
past geological events must be explained in terms of processes observable today
In the 1800s, Charles Lyell emphasized that
many different phenotypes
In a particular population, sexual reproduction can produce what
inherited traits are passed from parent to offspring
Charles Darwin's theory of evolution does not explain how
the changes in the inherited characteristics of a population
This statement best describes the result of natural selection
the number of genes that control the trait
The number of phenotypes produced for a given trait depends upon what
there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population
The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that
More offspring are produced than can possibly survive
This statement agrees with Darwin's theory of evolution
could be generalized to any population of organisms
Darwin realized that the economist Malthus' theory of population control
does not change the gene pool's allele frequencies
The gene shuffling that occurs as part of sexual reproduction
they contain two or more alleles for each inheritable trait
True statement about gene pools
are small
Genetic drift tends to occur in populations that
Charles Darwin
The hypothesis that species change over time by natural selection was proposed by whom
selective breeding (not natural selection)
Artificial selection as practiced by farmers is also called what
random mating (not directional selection)
In a population of birds, if females prefer males with long tails, the population violates the condition of what described by the Hardy-Weinberg principle
a few thousand
In Charles Darwin's time, many people thought that Earth and its living things were formed about how many years ago
What term refers to an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment
directional (not disruptive)
In a population of snakes with a range of body lengths, if the longest individuals have the highest fitness, what type of selection is likely to occur
Two populations that have overlapping ranges can remain reproductively isolated through what type of isolation or temporal isolation from temporal isolation
gene shuffling (not mutations)
Most inheritable differences are due to mutations that occur during the production of gametes
common descent (not natural variation)
According to the what concept, living and extinct species evolved from the same ancestors
compete for (not share)
According to Charles Darwin, members of a species must do what with their limited resources
Natural selection
What on single-gene traits can lead to changes in allele frequencies
fitness (not selection)
According to Darwin, what word would be applied to organisms adapted to survive and reproduce in their particular environments
In 1858, Alfred Russel Wallace sent Charles Darwin an essay proposing an explanation for what that was very similar to Darwin's
single-gene (not polygenic)
What type of trait is controlled by one gene
polygenic (not single-gene)
On a graph, the distribution of phenotypes for what type of trait tends to form a bell-shaped curve
descent with modification
The fact that species today look different from their ancestors can be described as what
geographic (not behavioral)
In the what type of reproductive isolation are two populations are separated by barriers such as rivers or mountains
marine fossils
Evidence that the surface of a mountain was once under the sea includes the presence of what on the mountain
In what sized populations, an allele can become more or less common simply by chance
According to Charles Darwin, individuals best suited to their environment survive and do what most successfully
equilibrium (not variation)
When mutations introduce new alleles into a population, genetic what is disrupted