Edexcel A2 geography, unit 3 - superpower geographies
Terms in this set (12)
A nation or region with the means to project it's power and influence anywhere to be a global dominant force. They need huge amounts of resources so are rare.
Can be economic or political. Unevenly distributed globally, patterns constantly change. Used to be exerted through hard methods eg the military, but now more subtle eg by flows of capital and culturally.
When one dominant country has power. Eg during the British Empire.
Two dominant superpowers exist, that challenge each other for global domination. Eg the USA and USSR in the Cold War.
Three or more dominant superpowers. Eg since 2010, the EU, USA, and China have been evolving.
The British Empire
Founded on exploration and sea power of the Royal Navy. Lasted 1700s to the 1930s. Colonies set up on coastlines, which then extended inland. Cultural and government systems from Britain introduced. Bankruptcy after WWII meant Britain couldn't afford to maintain the Empire. Legacy continues through the rule of 14 overseas territories and the Commonwealth.
The Cold War
1945-1990 between the Capitalist USA and Socialist USSR. USA globalised its sphere of influence whilst seeking to contain the influence of the USSR. USSR sought to build its core by allying with or invading surrounding countries. Overall, no military confrontation, USSR broke up into little republics and the USA emerged as the dominant superpower.
Based on Rostow's model of economic development. Formed in the 1960s to explain the dominance of the USA and British Empire who were the first to experience the Industrial Revolution, giving them the advantage over unindustrialised countries. Believed all countries would follow the same development pattern. Socialist and communist countries couldn't progress due to lacking the social requirements to develop. Influential as led to countries trying to create preconditions for take off, successful for Asian Tigers but left other countries heavily indebted.
A.G.Frank's theory. Two tier model, with an economically developed core, and underdeveloped periphery. Says that a capitalist core deliberately keeps the periphery in a state of underdevelopment by exploiting it, eg by cheap resources and a brain drain. Static, prevents countries from moving between regions. 'Development of underdevelopment.' Rise of NICs and Asian Tigers argue against this theory.
World Systems Theory
Wallerstein's theory which attempts to overcome the problems of a two tier world. Three tier, core, semi-periphery and periphery. Dynamic which allows change, so countries can move up or down levels.
Colonial maintenance of power
Exploration > initial settlement > trading of raw materials > gradual extension of rule by direct military action and conquest > development of political systems, institutions, transport and trade networks.
Neo-colonial maintenance of power
Indirect control over developing nations, used to explain lack of development. Extension of dependency theory.