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King - Evolution Exam One Unit One
Terms in this set (167)
What is evolutionary biology?
the study of the processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth
What are the major questions in evolutionary biology?
- Where did Earth's organisms come from?
- Why are there so many different kinds?
- Why do organisms have the features they do?
What are the assumptions of the scientific process?
- observations reflect real phenomena
- these phenomena are governed by natural causes
- natural causes can be discovered by observation and experimentation
- there is consistency in the causes that operate in the natural world
Describe the steps of the scientific process.
2. compute consequences of the guess
3. compare to experimentation or observation of the natural world
In the scientific process, what must step one be?
In the scientific process, if step three disagrees when compared to experimentation or observation of the natural world, what is it?
What is an objective and verifiable observation?
What is an educated guess?
What is an explanation of a natural phenomenon based on a wealth of well-documented evidence?
What do hypotheses and theories explain/interpret?
What are theories and hypotheses never proved, and what can they only be proved?
What are theories and hypotheses always subject to?
revision or rejection
What does a single experiment not disprove?
a well established theory (we have to check to make sure)
Regarding history of evolutionary thought, what was the traditional view before the 18th century?
the Earth was 6,000 years old, all species came into being at once in their present forms, species were fixed over time and did not change
Who is associated with the hierarchical classification of life on Earth?
Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)
What are the levels of Linnaeus' hierarchical classification of life on Earth?
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
What did Linnaeus publish in 1735?
Linnaeus classified _____ of plants and animals and created the _____ classification of species, e.g. Homo sapiens.
From Carl Linnaeus' hierarchical classification of life on Earth, what is a key idea?
all species can be classified into hierarchical groups based on similarities to one another
Who is associated with early explanations for why species change?
What did Lamarck publish in 1809?
What did Lamarck believe caused organisms to change within their lifetime?
Lamarck believed internal forces cause organisms to change within their lifetime. What did he believe these acquired characteristics are?
From Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's early explanations for why species change, what are key ideas?
inheritance, species change over time by accumulating small changes
Who is associated with population growth and regulation?
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
What did Malthus publish in 1798?
An Essay on the Principle of Population
What did Malthus believe all populations have the potential to do?
Malthus believed most natural populations are not _____.
What did Malthus believe populations were held in check by?
limited resources, disease, predation, etc.
From Thomas Malthus' population growth and regulation, what is a key idea?
not all individuals will be able to reproduce to their full potential
Who is associated with Uniformitarianism?
Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
What is an opposing theory to Uniformitarianism?
What did Lyell publish in 1830?
Principles of Geology
Lyell believed that the Earth has been shaped by gradual forces, and these forces are _____.
still acting today
What did Lyell believe the Earth must be?
What does Uniformitarianism require?
a very, very long timescale
From Charles Lyell's Uniformitarianism, what is a key idea?
very slight changes over very long time periods can produce enormous change
What did Darwin and Wallace accomplish together?
developed a theory to explain how and why species change
Who developed an interest in natural history at a young age, attended medical school in Edinburgh in 1825, and attended Cambridge to train to be a clergyman from 1827-1831?
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
When Darwin attended medical school in Edinburgh, what did he favor over medical studies?
When Darwin attended Cambridge to train to be a clergyman, what did he favor?
How much time did Darwin spend in the Galapagos on his Voyage of the Beagle from 1831-1836?
around 1 month
What did Darwin observe in the Galapagos?
variation among very similar species on the different islands
What are the four requirements for natural selection?
1. there is variation for a trait among individuals
2. some of that variation is heritable
3. there is differential reproductive success among individuals
4. there is a consistent relationship between the trait and reproductive success
If all four requirements for natural selection are fulfilled, what will occur?
there will be an increase in the frequency of individuals having those trait values that confer a relative increase in reproductive success
Darwin's theory of evolution - hypothesis/theory.
general outline of the idea of natural selection (1839-1842)
Darwin's theory of evolution - compute consequences of the hypothesis/theory, compare to experimentation or observation of the natural world.
spent the next 20 years gathering evidence
In 1858, Wallace sent Darwin a letter describing basically the same idea about _____ as a mechanism for evolutionary change. Darwin and Wallace made a joint presentation of these ideas in London in 1858. Darwin then rushed to publish an abstract of his full findings, called _____ (appeared on November 24, 1859).
natural selection, On the Origin of Species
What were the two main points of On the Origin of Species?
common descent, primary mechanism was natural selection
On the Origin of Species had two main points, one being common descent. What did common descent suggest?
evolution had occurred
On the Origin of Species had two main points, one being common descent. What was extensive evidence presented from?
fossil record, geographic distribution of species, comparative anatomy and embryology, artificial selection
On the Origin of Species had two main points, one being common descent. When was common descent widely accepted in the scientific community?
within around 20 years
On the Origin of Species had two main points, one being primary mechanism was natural selection. What does primary mechanism being natural selection explain?
how and why species change over time
On the Origin of Species had two main points, one being primary mechanism was natural selection. Primary mechanism being natural selection was not accepted widely until the _____ was discovered.
mechanism of inheritance (genetics)
What is evolution?
change over time
What is the change in allele frequencies over time, is the change in the genetic constitution of a population over time, and is any change in the inherited traits of a population that occurs from one generation to the next?
What is biological evolution not?
change within an individual's lifetime, ontogenetic changes (from training, learning, or acclimation)
Regarding biological evolution, individuals do not evolve. What evolves?
When is biological evolution happening?
all the time
Biological evolution is the _____ for populations.
What are the levels of evolutionary biology?
What is evolution occurring within populations including adaptive and neutral changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next?
What is evolution occurring above the species level including the origination, diversification, and extinction of species over long periods of time?
Is evolution a fact or theory?
How is evolution a fact?
directly observe allele frequencies changing over time
How is evolution a theory?
the mechanisms by which evolution occurs, how/why life evolves
Who is associated with radiometric dating?
Regarding radiometric dating, what does the slope of the isochron increase with?
Regarding radiometric dating, what does the slope of the line give you?
time since crystallization
Regarding radiometric dating, what do the oldest rocks on Earth date to?
4.4 billion years ago
Regarding how fossils form, what does it really help to have?
Regarding how fossils form, what does absence not mean?
it was not there
How are fossils dated?
relative dating and the geological time scale, radiometric dating
What biases exist in the fossil record?
geographic, taxonomic, temporal
In the fossil record, what bias favors lowland and marine habitates?
In the fossil record, what bias favors hard parts, and large things are easier to find (though fewer in number)?
In the fossil record, what bias is reflected by older things having more chances to be lost?
The earliest possible fossil evidence was early chemical evidence - rocks enriched in ¹²C in Greenland. How many years ago was this?
The earliest possible fossil evidence of life was first fossil cells. How many years ago was this?
Regarding the earliest possible fossil evidence of life, how many years ago were stromatolites?
When did cyanobacteria and oxygenation appear?
2.6 billion years ago
When did the first multicellular eukaryotes appear?
1.8-1.6 billion years ago
What did the cells of the earliest eukaryotes contain?
nucleus, usually other organelles
What is the cell size of the earliest eukaryotes typically much larger than?
When did the first animals appear?
650 million years ago
When did Ediacaran fossils appear?
575 million years ago
When did the Cambrian period occur?
541-511 million years ago
Ediacaran or Cambrian fauna - soft-bodied.
Ediacaran or Cambrian fauna - some have similarities to modern lineages, others do not.
Ediacaran or Cambrian fauna - disappear from the fossil record within 40 million years.
Ediacaran or Cambrian fauna - first hard parts evolve.
Ediacaran or Cambrian fauna - nearly all major animal lineages emerge.
Ediacaran or Cambrian fauna - largest animal was around 1 meter.
When did movement onto land for plants and fungi occur?
475 million years ago
When did movement onto land for arthropods occur?
420 million years ago
When did movement onto land for tetrapods occur?
370 million years ago
When movement onto land occurred, what are the challenges of living on land?
organisms weigh more in air (support challenges), desiccation is a constant problem, respiration system must change, sound and light work differently (vision and hearing)
When movement onto land occurred and desiccation became a constant problem, what is a correlated issue?
reproduction being independent of water
When did land plant diversification occur?
around 340 million years ago
When did angiosperms evolving and diversifying occur?
around 130 million years ago
For tetrapods, when did four limbs evolve?
around 390-370 million years ago
When did the two major lineages of sauropsids and synapsids diverge?
very early after the first amniotes appeared
What are sauropsids and synapsids distinguished by?
pattern of bones in the skull
Sauropsids or synapsids - turtles, lizards, snakes, and birds, many extinct taxa (e.g. dinosaurs).
Sauropsids or synapsids - mammals, marsupials, and monotremes, many extinct taxa (e.g. "mammal-like reptiles").
What are examples of Permian synapsids?
When did the Permian-Triassic Extinction during the Age of Dinosaurs occur?
250 million years ago
When did the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction during the Age of Dinosaurs occur?
66 million years ago
What do we mean by "complexity"?
more functional capabilities
Is there an active trend toward complexity?
What is the origin of life at the wall of?
Will maximum complexity increase or decrease over time?
What are the majority of species on Earth?
Regarding complexity, what is not detected?
movement to the left
Following the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction, what occurred, and what became present within five million years?
rapid radiation of placental mammals; most mammal clades
How long ago did Sahelanthropus live?
7 million years
How long ago did Australopithecus afarensis live?
3.5 million years
When did homo sapiens appear?
200,000 years ago
When did writing begin?
5000 years ago
When was the Age of Microbes?
around 3.7-1.6 billion years ago
When was the Age of Dinosaurs?
around 250-66 million years ago
When was the Age of Humans?
around 7 million years ago - now
The Age of Dinosaurs is _____ times longer than the Age of Humans. The Age of Microbes is _____ times longer than the Age of Dinosaurs The Age of Microbes is _____ times longer than the Age of Humans.
26, 11, 300
Linnean taxonomy vs. phylogenetic taxonomy - rigid hierarchy (kingdom, phylum, etc.), "sub" groups, no room for fossils, required expert knowledge/intuition of groups.
Linnean taxonomy vs. phylogenetic taxonomy - nested sets of taxa, any natural grouping (clade) can be named.
What does "phylogeny" mean?
the course of evolution
What do family trees show?
What do phylogenetic trees show?
Phylogenetic trees show evolutionary relationships, but they do not show all the details including non-relevant taxa left out for _____ and populations, not _____.
In tree terminology, what is the most recent species (usually extant)?
In tree terminology, what is the hypothesized closest genealogical relative of a taxon exclusive of their most recent common ancestor?
In tree terminology, what are the points where one species split into two or more descendant species?
In tree terminology, what is a grouping given a proper name?
taxon (pl. = taxa)
In tree terminology, what is the common ancestor of all species on the tree?
Both monophyletic groups (natural; clade) and paraphyletic groups show the single common ancestor. Which includes all of its known descendants?
What is an example of a paraphyletic group?
Basic premise of phylogenetics: All life can be grouped into a _____ by homologous characters. Most _____ to conclude that these were inherited from a common ancestor. The most closely related taxa should have the _____.
nested hierarchy, parsimonious, most traits in common
What are similarities in two or more taxa due to inheritance from a common ancestor?
What type of similarities does homology predict?
structural, developmental, molecular
Homology shows structural similarities between species _____ of function.
Homology shows molecular similarities in that the _____ is shared among all organisms, 98.8% of DNA is the same between humans and _____, and the genes involved in more basic functions are shared with _____ taxa.
genetic code, chimpanzees, more distantly related
What is homoplasy?
convergent evolution (similar character states that evolved INDEPENDENTLY)
What can all life be grouped into?
a nested hierarchy by homologous characteristics
What do phylogenetic trees represent?
hypotheses of relationships
Regarding phylogenetic trees, what are the types of data (characters/traits)?
anatomy, development, DNA/RNA/mtDNA/etc., behavior, physiology
When making trees, how should data be used to arrange organisms by?
their ordered branching of evolutionary relationships (phylogenetic tree)
When making trees, what is the goal?
identification of monophyletic groups (natural groups or clades)
When making trees, what are taxa (e.g. Mammalia; Canis familiaris) defined by?
When making trees, what is parsimony?
fewest number of changes
When making trees, what is "maximum parsimony" for many characters?
lowest sum total number of changes
Because making trees is not subjective, what is it?
When making trees, what is assumed?
no a priori hypotheses of relationships
What defines monophyletic groups (clades)?
What are shared, derived characteristics (character state is different than the ancestral state)?
What must monophyletic groups (clades) have, and what must they be?
same character state; homologous characters
Regarding synapomorphies and homoplasy, what can create synapomorphies?
Regarding synapomorphies and homoplasy, what can remove synapomorphies?
What are synapomorphies shared by?
the common ancestor and all members
Regarding synapomorphies, what are okay (e.g. loss of limbs in snakes)?
Regarding synapomorphies, what occurs when there are reversals?
other synapomorphies place the group in that clade
Regarding the role of fossils in phylogenetic trees, what is an example of a transitional fossil form discovered in 2006?
What did Tiktaalik have features of both?
Tiktaalik had features of both fish and amphibians. What were the fish-like features?
scales, fins, gills and lungs
Tiktaalik had features of both fish and amphibians. What were the amphibian-like features?
neck, flat head, eyes on top of head, ribs, arm with bendable elbow
Regarding transitional forms and the mammalian ear, what is homologous to the bones of the middle ear in mammals?
bones of reptile jaw
Is the camera eye an example of homology or homoplasy?
What happens when many lines of evidence support the same hypothesis?
we become more confident of that hypothesis
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