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70 terms

CRCT Lit and Grammar Review

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Adjective
A word that modifies a noun or pronoun.
Adverb
A word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb; common ending is "ly".
Alliteration
Words beginning with the same consonant sound.
Allusion
Reference to someone or something famous in order to make a point.
Alphabetize
Written in alphabetical order.
Analogy
Comparison of the similarities of two things that are unlike.
Antecedent
Noun that names a person, place, or thing that a pronoun refers back to.
Author's purpose
1. persuasion
2. inform
3. entertain
Citation
Reference to the author of the material you are using
Clincher
A strong ending sentence to a paper.
Colon
Use a colon to introduce a list of items, after the formal greeting in a business letter, between hours and minutes in expression of time, and in a title that has specific information about the book.
Combining sentences
Write the most effective sentence to express a thought. This prevents wordiness.
Run-on
two independent clauses joined without punctuation or only a comma
Comparative Adjective/Adverb
Comparing two things. ex- John is taller than Mike.
Complex sentence
Contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
Compound sentence
Contains two or more independent clauses connected by a comma and a conjunction or a semicolon.
Compound/complex sentence
Contains more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
Conjunction
A word used to join works or groups of words
Context clues
Clues in surrounding text that help the reader determine the meaning of an unknown word.
Correlative conjunctions
Pairs of words that connect words used in the same way.
Dependent clause
Clause that does not expresses a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Direct object
A word or group of words that name the receiver of the action. Ex. New Yorkers take the subway.
Homonyms
Words that are spelled the same but are pronounced differently
Homophones
Words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings.
Hook
Introduction to get the reader's attention.
Hyperbole
An exaggeration.
Idiom
Phrase whose meaning cannot be determined from the ordinary meaning of the words.
Implied
Expressed indirectly; understand what author is trying to express through his use of words and characters' action.
Independent clause
Clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.
Index
An alphabetical listing of topics and the page numbers where they can be found in a text. It is usually found in the back of the book.
Indirect object
A word or group of words that tell "For whom am I doing this wonderful thing." It is located between the action verb and the direct object.
Inference
A logical guess based on facts and common sense.
Infinitive
A verb form that usually begins with the word "to" and is followed by a verb. "To" is not a preposition when used this way.
Interjection
A word of phrase used to express emotion. Ex. Hey, how do you like my automatic scanner?
Irrelevant
Off the subject; not needed.
Main Idea
General idea for a paragraph or paper.
Metaphor
Type of figurative language in which two unlike things are compared.
Modifier
A word or group of words that limit the meaning of another word; describes. Adjectives and adverbs are modifiers.
Mood
Atmosphere; overall emotions shown within a story such as happy, gloomy, peaceful, and mysterious.
Myth
A fictional tale that explains the actions of gods or heroes or the origins of elements of nature.
Noun
Person, place, thing, or an idea.
Organizational pattern
Compare/contrast, chronological order, cause/effect, transition
Onomatopoeia
Words that sound like what they describe
Personification
Giving human traits to animals or nonliving things
Perspective
The way something is viewed.
Predicate adjective
An adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the verb's subject.
Preposition
A word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence. The most common prepositions are the following: in, on, to, for, from, with, at, of, about, and by.
Pronoun/noun antecedent agreement
Agreement in number and case between a pronoun and its antecedent.
Quotation marks
Remember, most common way to use quotation marks is "comma quote and period quote."
Redundant
Not needed; extra; saying the same words again..
Semicolon
Punctuation mark that separates two independent clauses in a sentence..
Sequence
The coming of one thing after another; order which events happen.
Simile
A comparison of two unlike things using "like" and "as".
Simple predicate
The verb or verbs in a sentence.
Subject/verb agreement
agreement in number between a subject and a verb. If the subject is singular, the verb is singular. If the subject is plural, the verb is plural.
Subordinate clause
Another name for dependent clause. This type of clause can not stand alone as a complete thought.
Supporting sentence
Sentences in a paragraph that elaborate your topic sentence.
Theme
Deep meaning or insight of a piece of literature-overall message.
Tone
Author's attitude towards the subject which is conveyed through the writer's choice of words.
Topic sentence
States the main idea of the text; what the paper will be about.
Transition
Make connection between sentences and paragraphs, giving the paragraph cherence and making it easier to follow. Common transition words are first, next, then, following, also etc.
Unifying
Sameness throughout such as a unifying theme.
Verb forms
Every verb has four basic forms called its principal part. Present-sail; present participle-is sailing (always ends with "ing"); past-sailed, past participle-has sailed.
Superlative
Comparing more than two things (use "est" and "most" or "least.")
Audience
For whom you are writing.
Superlative Adjective/Adverb
compares 3 or more things ex- Of the entire class, John is the tallest.
clause
group of words that contain a subject and a verb--may or may not be able to stand alone
cumulative adjectives
adjectives that do not modify a noun separately. In other words, they have to stay together in a particular order. They do NOT require a comma between them
coordinate adjectives
adjectives that could be joined by AND because they describe the noun separately, they require a comma betwen them
stanza
a paragraph of poetry; usually set off by spacing