Hemodynamic Defense- CardioRush

Maintain cardiovascular integrity
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Terms in this set (77)
Diastolic BP + 1/3 pulse pressureWhat is the equation for MAP?CO increases but PVR decreases due to arteriolar vasodilation of skeletal muscleWhy does MAP remain level during exercise?Peripheral vascular resistanceWhat is the main determinant of BP and regional distribution of blood flow?ArteriolesWhat are the main vessels involved in PVR control?Poiseuille's LawWhat law describes the effect of radius of vessels on resistance?8nL/pi(r^4)What is the equation for Poiseuilles Law?ANS, metabolic, paracrine factorsHow is PVR regulated acutely?NO, adenosine, adrenergic and cholinergic signalsWhat are some examples of metabolic and paracrine factors that regulate PVR acutely?SNS, angiotensin, vasopressin, endothelinWhat are some things that regulate PVR for intermediate and long terms?VasoconstrictionWhat is the effect of endothelin on blood vessel radius?Chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, SNSWhat hemodynamic defense mechanisms take effect in seconds?RAAS, capillary fluid shiftWhat hemodynamic defense mechanisms take effect in minutes?Aldosterone, SNS, renal blood flowWhat hemodynamic defense mechanisms take effect in hours to days?Vasomotor centerWhat is the place in the brain that controls short term BP regulation?Medulla, lower ponsWhere in the brain is the vasomotor system located?CN9, 10What nerves are used by the vasomotor center to send signals to the heart and vessels?Sensory, vasoconstrictor, vasodilatorWhat are the 3 major areas of the vasomotor center?Nucleus solitariusWhat nucleus is present in the sensory area of the vasomotor center?Coordinates signals and conveys to VC and VD areasWhat is the function of the nucleus solitarius of the vasomotor center?Excited VC neurons of SNSWhat is the function of the vasoconstrictor area of the vasomotor center?Inhibits vasoconstriction signalsWhat is the function of the vasodilator area of the vasomotor center?Carotid sinus, aortic archWhere are high pressure baroreceptors located?Detect magnitude, rate of change of pressure induced stretchWhat is the function of high pressure baroreceptors?BaroreceptorsWhat is the first line of defense in acute changes in BP?TrueTrue or false: high pressure baroreceptors reset after 1-2 days, so they are less important for chronic BP controlChemoreceptors, stress relaxation, CNS ischemic responseOther than baroreceptors, what are other acute responders to BP changes?CN9What cranial nerve do the baroreceptors of the carotid sinus use?CN10What cranial nerve do the baroreceptors of the aortic arch use?Increased CO, restore BPWhat is the end result of decreased baroreceptor firing due to acute fall in BP?Signals to increased SNS tone, leads to vasoconstriction, increased HR and contractilityHow does a decrease in baroreceptor firing lead to an increase in CO and restoration of BP?IntermediateWhat time frame of control is used with epinephrine and norepinephrine?SNS stimulationWhat stimulates epinephrine and norepinephrine release?Adrenal medullaWhere in the body are epinephrine and norepinephrine released from?Increased CO, vasoconstriction, BPWhat is the general response to epinephrine and norepinephrine release?Alpha1What type of receptors are used by norepinephrine?Arteriolar vasoconstriction, venous vasoconstriction, increased PVR and venous returnWhat is the result of alpha 1 receptor binding by NorEpi?Beta1What type of receptor is used mainly by epinephrine?Increased chronotropy, inotropy, lusitropy, overall COWhat are the effects of beta 1 receptor binding by epi?IntermediateWhat time frame does capillary fluid shift respond in to BP change?Decreased BPWhat stimulates capillary fluid shifts?SNS efferents cause vasoconstriction of precapillary sphincter, decrease capillary pressure to create gradient for flow of fluid from tissuesWhat is the mechanism by which capillary fluid shifts occur?Net filtration of fluid into vessels, restores BP and BVWhat is the result of capillary fluid shifts in response to low BP?Renin released from kidney, converts angiotensinogen from liver to angiotensin I, ACE from lungs converts to angiotensin II, causes multiple effectsWhat is the RAAS pathway?Increase SNS tone, aldosterone secretion, increase Na/Cl absorption, increase K excretion, arteriole vasoconstriction, ADH secretionWhat are the various effects caused by angiotensin II?Increased water/salt retention, volume expansion, higher perfusion of kidneysWhat is the overall effect of RAAS activation?Renal SNS stimulation, decreased renal perfusion, decreased Na to macula densaWhat are the signals that lead to renin release?Decreased stretch in glomerular afferent tubules, renal SNS stimulation, decreased Na in macula densaWhat stimulates angiotensin release?Vasoconstriction, thirst, conserve Na/water in kidney, efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction, aldosterone and ADH releaseWhat is the result of angiotensin release?Angiotensin II, low Na at macula densa, increased K, ACTHWhat stimulates aldosterone release?More transcription of Na/K pumps in distal convoluted tubules, increased Na and K channelsWhat is the mechanism of action of aldosterone?Na/water retention, K excretion, myocardial remodeling and fibrosisWhat is the result of aldosterone secretion?Edema, anasarca, hypokalemia, alkalosisWhat is the result of aldosterone release in heart failure animals?Plasma hyperosmolarity, decreased atrial stretch, angiotensin IIWhat stimulates ADH release?V1, V2What are the 2 stretch receptors that can cause ADH secretion?V1What type of stretch receptor is fast acting to restore BP?V2What type of stretch receptor is slower acting to restore BV?ADHWhat hormone of RAAS is inappropriately elevated in CHF and can lead to worsening of signs?Direct vasoconstriction, more aquaporins in collecting ductWhat is the result of ADH secretion?Increased BP, BVWhat are the net effects of RAAS activation?Remodeling, progressive hypertrophy, fibrosisWhat are the intracardiac RAAS system effects of activation?Natriuretic peptidesWhat signals act as direct antagonists to RAAS?ANP, BNPWhat are the 2 kinds of natriuretic peptides?AtriaWhat is the source of ANP?VentriclesWhat is the source of BNP?Diuretic effects through natriuresis, endogenous antagonist to RAAS, inhibit SNS and vasopressinWhat is the function of ANP/BNP?Stretch of atria or ventricles, myocardial dysfunctionWhat stimulates ANP/BNP release?Inhibits renin and aldosterone release, relaxes AT2 induced vasoconstriction, natriuresis, diuresis, decreased BP, increased GFR, vasoconstriction of renal efferent arteriolesWhat are the actions of ANP/BNP?