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psych exam 2
Terms in this set (49)
Transitions in mental activities associated with thinking, including knowing, remembering, communicating, reasoning, and problem-solving
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
object permanence, stranger anxiety
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
pretend play, egocentrism
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
conservation, mathematical transformations
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
in Piaget's theory, difficulty taking another person's point of view.
Children are typically engaging in some level of symbolic reasoning if they engage in pretend play
understanding that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of the objects
systematic problem solving
abstract concepts (e.g., metaphors)
A concept or framework that organizes or interprets information
interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
Adapting our current schemas to incorporate new information
An Alternative Viewpoint to Piaget: Lev Vygotsky and the Social Child
Child's mind grows through interactions with the social environment
Scaffolding offers children temporary support as higher levels of thinking are developed (between too easy and too difficult - AKA Zone of Proximal Development)
Language facilitates social mentoring and provides the building blocks for thinking
an emotional tie with another person
Predominant theory until 1950s: infants become attached to those who provide nourishment
Origins of Attachment: Harlows (1950s)
Young monkeys would prefer wire/mesh monkey with milk, over soft monkey without milk
Young monkeys preferred 2 over 1
•Other qualities in later studies also were strongly preferred: warmth, rocking, etc.
•Monkeys clung to soft mothers, esp. when anxious, using her as a secure base to explore environment.
Attachment Differences: Ainsworth (1979):
Step 1: infants @ 0-6 months observe mother responsiveness
Classify mother: warm/responsive, cold/rejecting, or ambivalent/inconsistent
Step 2: infants @ 1 year observe infant in "strange situation" Classify infant: securely attached, insecurely (avoidant or anxious/ambivalent)
Stranger anxiety: fear of strangers infants developed around 8 months
Separation anxiety: anxiety over separation from caregivers starting around 6-8 months and peaking around 13 months
•Upset when mother left, fairly readily calmed down upon her return
•Upset when mother left, more upset when she returned, difficult to calm down (anxious/ambivalent)
•Not upset when mother left, not upset when she returned (avoidant)
•General trust of others
•Constant fear of rejection; jealous, unstable relationships (anxious/ambivalent)
•Maintain distance, fear of getting close, often regarded as cold (avoidant)
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity & intensity
So does mother responsiveness mean nothing and temperament everything?
Temperament interacts with mother responsiveness (and other environmental factors).
Environment does matter.
Responsiveness is only one type of parenting skill.
Our temperament is not our entire personality.
Temperament can change.
And wtf? What about fathers?
Van den Boom (1990s)
Randomly assigned mothers of young temperamentally difficult infants to either:
1. Training in sensitive responding (experimental
2. No training (control group)
Outcome: By age 1, 68% in experimental group securely attachment (only 28% of control group were securely attached)
International research on fathering (responsiveness, love & acceptance, involvement in child's life) similar to results for mothers (á = better outcomes for children).
This should not be interpreted as:
•Single parents result in unhealthy children
•Gay couples result in unhealthy children (e.g.):
•lesbian couples = father absence
•father absence = poor outcomes
•(therefore) lesbian couples = poor outcomes
•Impose rules without explanation or discussion
•High & sometimes unreasonable expectations, decrease Social competence
•Don't set limits; few rules
•Inconsistent or non-existent discipline
•May be (or appear to be) indifferent, unresponsive
•Set rules (sometimes democratic), explain
•Consistent, high but reasonable expectations
"Firm but caring"
Increase self esteem
increase social competence
Autism Spectrum Disorder:
a disorder, first appearing in childhood, marked by
Autism Spectrum Disorder causes include:
Mutations associated with increased paternal age
High concordance rate among siblings
Maternal infection & some prescribed medications
Vaccinations are not the culprit
(This is repeated): Vaccinations are not the culprit
the biologically influence characteristics by which people define males and females
the socially influenced characteristics by which people define men and women
•is any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm...
...someone physically or emotionally (physical aggression)
...a person's relationship or social standing (relational aggression)
An umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their assigned sex at birth
Transgender folks may describe themselves as, or are described by others, as
Transsexual (rarer term)
Partial List of Intersex Conditions
•Androgen insensitivity syndrome
•Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Social Learning Theory:
gender is learned by observing and imitating others and by being rewarded & punished
learning that certain events occur together
Observational (Cognitive) Learning
Learning that takes place through experience and imitation
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer, or diminished if followed by a punisher.
increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
the administration of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring
the removal of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior
take something away
reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
reinforced every time
•Learning occurs more rapidly
•Extinction occurs more rapidly once reinforcement stops
•Learning occurs more slowly
•Resistance to extinction greater once reinforcement stops
SOME PUNISHMENT CAVEATS
-Punishment temporarily suppresses behavior; parents punishing behavior is negatively reinforced.
-Punishment may communicate it's not OK to behave a certain way in one situation, but same behavior is OK in another situation.
-Punishment can teach fear: punished behavior as well as punisher may become associated with fear.
(Punishment should be specific & (especially with those like young children, pets) and immediate)
-Negative punishment, + positively reinforcing desired behavior is always preferable to severe (especially physical) positive punishment.Physical punishment may increase aggression.
APPLICATIONS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING
At school: Electronic technologies and adaptive learning software used in teaching and learning have helped realize Skinner's goal of individually paced, customized instruction with immediate feedback.
In sports: Behavioral methods are used to shape behavior in athletic performance.
At work: Rewards have been successfully used to increase productivity and skill development.
At home: Basic rules of shaping are used in parenting, and to reinforce our own desired behaviors
TO CHANGE YOUR OWN BEHAVIOR
State a realistic goal in measurable terms.
Decide how, when, and where you will work toward your goal.
Monitor how often you engage in your desired behavior.
Reinforce the desired behavior.
Reduce the rewards gradually.
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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