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Ch. 11 Digestive System Final Exam Review Guide
Terms in this set (121)
bile, gall, cholesterol
chyle-, adipo-, lipo-, steato-
fat or lymph
dento-, donto-, odonto-
12 (fingers) = 10" duodenum 1st part small intestine
intestine or small intestine
gluco-, saccharo-, glyco-
twisted (3rd part of small intestine)
to empty (2nd part of small intestine)
lapio-, abdomino-, celio-, vestero-
belly or abdomen
litho-, petro-, lapio-
masseter and mandible
to grind/one who
palate/roof of mouth
mucus, saliva fluid
stomato-, os-, oro-
gummi (gum) goma (gum)
1. AKA Parulis
2. Gum boils are abscesses of the gum, especially with sub/peri/osteal infections associated with a tooth cavity, irritation, injury, infection, denture friction, or other dental problems.
3. Area is swollen, red, tender and usually painful. It usually comes to a type of point, and breaks or requires an incision.
rotten or cavity
*-al (pertaining to)
1. Gradual decalcification of enamel and dentin of tooth
2. Prevention includes good oral hygiene and laser treatments. Minimizing refined processed foods is also important to preventing dental caries.
3. Oral tissues like gums may become inflamed, abscesses may form, and gingiv/itis can often occur.
4. In most industrialized countries, dental caries affect 60-90% of school children and the vast majority of adults.
tartar (AKA: Dental Plaque or Calculus)
1. Tartaron means the dregs
2. Buildup of calcaneus matter upon teeth
3. Composed of a combination of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate combined with organic matter (food and saliva)
4. Usually leads to tooth recession and gingivitis
AKA: peri/odont/itis (around/tooth/inflamed)
*py/o- (pus; pyon means pus)
1. AKA Rigg's Disease, peri/odonto/clas/ia
2. Disease characterized by inflammation and degeneration of peri/osteum (around/tooth), alveolar bone, cementum (for hard).
3. Reabsorption of alveolar bone results in recession of gums and tooth loosening.
4. Usually follows gingiv/itis, acute Vincent's infection, and poor hygiene.
1. Gingiva is the tissue that surrounds neck of teeth and covers alveolar process in jaw.
2. Characteristics: red, tender, and swollen
3. Often caused by poor dental hygiene, poorly fitting dentures, as well as poor occlusion.
4. May accompany inflammation of mouth and upper resp. infections.
5. Occurs with nutritional problems such as scurvy (Vitamin C deficiency) or metallic poisoning.
6. Vincent's infection shows ulceration, tissue sloughing, and it is accompanied by tissue necrotizing.
7. Treatment is antibiotics, teeth cleaning, or surgery.
8. The most serious form includes painful gum, mouth, and throat ulcers, swollen lymph nodes, fever, and ulceration of tonsils.
1. Abnormal contact of teeth of upper jaw with teeth of lower jaw.
2. 3 main types with several divisions
*hyper (over, excessive, above)
*plassein (to form)
1. Excessive proliferation of normal cells in normal tissue, organ, or body part.
2. AKA hyper/genesis
3. Gingival hyperplasia may be caused by medications such as dilantin and cyclosporine.
*hypo (below, under, less than)
*plassein (to form)
1. Underdevelopment or defective development of body tissue.
2. Facial and jaw bones are underdeveloped in infant
attritio means rubbing against
1. Wearing away anywhere in body due to rubbing or any type of friction that breaks down skin.
2. Normal wearing away of teeth
3. Attrition and oral cancer
4. Kaposi's sarc/oma (fleshy/tumors)
brychein means to grind teeth/state of
1. Grinding of teeth
1. Stainless steel wire bands are fitted and bonded to teeth to straighten them.
2. They are regularly adjusted or tightened to move the teeth in the correct position in the jaw line.
3. The straight wire fixed appliance is used to reorient arch wire slots to correct or improve mal/occlusion.
4. Clear, removable braces may be used in some mild cases of malocclusion, for aesthetic concerns.
1. A neoplasm is a new or abnormal formation of tissue; a tumor or growth. It serves no useful function, but grows at the expense of healthy organisms.
A. Benign: grows or spreads by metastasis or infiltration of tissue.
B. Histoid: resembles tissue and elements that surround it.
C. Malignant: growth that infiltrates tissues and metastasis. It often recurs after attempt at surgical removal.
D. Mixed: type composed of two or more germinal layers.
E. Organoid: resembles body organ
F. Unicentric: originates from one group of cells
G. Multicentric: arises from a number of distinct cell groups.
Heartburn/GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
1. Usually treated with antacids or other drugs that may suppress acids, but often cause long-term problems.
2. Caused by acid reflux or fault valve allowing acid back up into esophagus.
3. Diagnosis is made by placing a small tube through the mouth and placing it at the valve between stomach and esophagus looking for inflammation and/or ulceration.
4. Often treatment includes drugs like Tagamet
5. The Stretta System contains electrodes that use radio frequency energy to burn spots on muscles controlling faulty valve-causing tightening.
6. The Suturing System uses a miniature sewing machine on end of a tube placing tiny stitches along valves edges causing tightening.
7. Acids corrode esophagus, causing swallowing problems and possibly esophageal cancer.
hepatikos (liver); -oma (tumor)
6 essential body nutrients necessary for life
means to nourish
means life + amines
Obesity and The Diet Controversy
1. Dr. Robert Atkins strongly believed in a high-protein and low-carbohydrate diet. He stressed that this consumption pattern is easy to follow and you are never hungry. He believed cholesterol and fat production by the body led to obesity.
2. Dr. Morrison Bethea suggested removing sugar and foods like potatoes and carrots that act like sugar in the body.
3. Dr. John McDougall felt that a diet high in plant-based starches and with no animal products is best to fight obesity.
without/appetite: nervous condition
1. Loss of appetite seen in depression, illness of alimentary track and drug addiction.
2. Drug malaise often leads to anorexia and significant loss of weight.
3. Eating disorder usually seen in females age 12-25, characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight, refusal to maintain a healthy body weight, and a distorted body image.
4. Usually no physical condition involved, mostly psychological.
5. Psychiatric treatment may be required for treatment
hunger: nervous condition
1. Neurological disorder mostly affecting young people characterized by voluntary vomiting, fasting, and induced diarrhea (enema and laxatives).
2. Also called binge-and-purge syndrome.
1. Literal meaning is "intestine" as used in words like dys/enter/y (painful or difficult/intestinal/process). Actual meaning is "small intestine," because the term colon (colo- or colono- in its combining form) is used to refer to the large intestine.
2. Duodenum (duodeno-) actually refers to the first part of the small intestine.
3. Jejunum (jejuno-) actually means the second part of the small intestine. It literally means to "empty."
4. Ileum (ileo-) literally means "twisted."
1. Located between duodenum and ileum of small intestine.
2. Jejun/os/tom/y is a surgical procedure to create an artificial opening through abdominal wall to administer liquefied foods to patients at risk of aspiration.
1. Diagnostic exam for large intestine usually to detect polyps, cancer, and ulcers.
2. Solution is consumed the day before and six hours prior to cleanse entire mucosal lining and again during the exam to highlight abnormal cells for biopsy.
1. Essential to help detect rectal cancer.
2. Also used to look for causes of rectal bleeding or to monitor growth of polyps.
3. Built-in illuminator for proper viewing of area.
4. Lubricant, a platinum loop, a culture swab, glass slides, slide covers, and gloves are also required.
5. Lubricated scope obturator (to fill) is positioned gently by pressing it against anus and inserting it into rectum. Patient pushes backward gently. Obturator is removed and rectum is inspected with endoscope. Samples of bacteria or tissue are taken with swabs or loops.
6. Instrument is withdrawn slowly while viewing rectum and anal canal.
1. Inflammation of vermiform appendix attached to cecum.
2. Usually occurs from ages 10 to 30 years. Rarely before age 2 or after age 50.
3. More common in males
4. Acute, sub-acute or chronic
5. In women it must be differentiated from monthly menstrual pain associated with ovulation, rupture ectopic pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease.
6. Symptoms are abdominal pain
7. Body temp. is more than 100
8. Abscesses often form in 1 to 3 days after symptom onset.
9. Pressure is usually in the abdominal cavity
10. Rupturing can lead to periton/itis
pinworms or roundworms
*askaris (intestinal worm)
1. Infest the digestive tract and intestines, causing severe obstructions and inflammation. Size varies from tiny pinworms large roundworms.
*hyper (above or over)
1. Elevation of LDL/VLDL and decrease of HDL
2. Total cholesterol levels should be under 200 mg of cholesterol per deciliter.
3. High cholesterol is a cause of heart disease
4. White, waxy, crystalline, organic alcohol found in animal fats, oils, and tissues.
5. Cholester/ol (bile or gall/solids) is primary ingredient in gallstones and in blood vessel condition of athero/scler/osis.
1. Acute or chronic inflammation of gallbladder sac, usually caused by gallstones and chemical irritants. Not everyone with gallstones gets cholecystitis.
2. Multiple stones requires cholecystectomy
3. Litho/trips/y (crushing of stone) is performed with small number of stones.
1. Chronic degenerative change in liver. It is characterized by formation of dense perilobular connective tissue and fatty infiltration of parenchymal essential organ parts cells.
2. Characterized by clinical signs and symptoms with progressive liver cell failure.
3. Increase in BP caused by poor blood flow through portal veins to liver.
4. In time, the severity leads to ammonia toxicity. Etiology: nutritional deficiencies especially in amino acids; phosphorus and alcohol poisoning; and infections.
1. 5 Types: A, B, C, D, E
2. Inflammation of liver cells causing tissue death
3. Liver is second largest organ in body
4. Symptoms: jaundice, liver failure, anorexia, fever, and gastrointestinal upset
5. Infections are transmitted 2 to 4 weeks before and after symptoms appear.
6. Loss of weight, enlarged liver, muscle pain and prur/itus.
7. Infectious hepatitis A and serum hepatitis B are the most common.
1. A new opening (mouth in abdomen)
2. Performed when feces are unable to move through colon or with certain diseases.
3. Often performed for temporary purposes
Crohn's Disease (Chronic Ileitis or Chronic Enteritis)
entero- (intestine or small intestine)
1. Chronic recurrent disease usually in young adults involving inflammation of small intestine.
2. Characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and weight loss.
3. In large intestine, it is called Crohn's colitis or granulo/mat/ous/col/itis.
4. Stenosis, adhesions, constipation, diarrhea, and vomiting are common.
5. Marked perianal ulceration similar to primary syphilis chancres.
*divertere- literally means to turn aside/away, actual meaning is an outpouching
1. Diverticulum is a pouch or sac in the wall of a canal or organ.
2. Ex: found in rugae of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, navel, and colon.
3. Colon outpouches tend to be a/symptomatic (no signs or symptoms).
4. The ongoing condition is referred to as diverticulosis and excessive outpouching of rugae or folds that are inflamed are referred to as diverticulitis.
5. Diverticul/itis usually causes constipation, pain, abscesses, and gangrene.
6. Diverticul/itis is sometimes referred to as left side appendicitis.
big intestine: folds or ridges
1. This is where 90% or more of water in our chyme is reabsorbed into circulatory system.
2. The membrane covering the folds is porous and convoluted.
3. Most nutrients have already been extracted from chyme in small intestine.
intestine "small usually"/contraction
1. Entero- usually refers to small intestine or total intestine, as in enteric and enteritis.
2. Colic dys/entery; colo- always refers to large intestine
3. Enteritis is any acute or chronic inflammation of intestinal tract.
4. Specifically, inflammation of mucosa and sub/mucosa of small intestine.
5. Villi (shaggy hairs) of small intestine
1. Inflammation of membrane of ileum "twisted part" of small intestine.
2. Ileum becomes ulcerated, thick, rigid, swollen, and lumen narrows.
3. Lymph glands enlarge
4. Pain around navel and rt. lower quadrant
5. Abdominal distention, vomiting, alternating diarrhea and constipation, weight loss, and grayish brown stool.
6. Etiology is heredity or abnormal immune response, sometimes triggered by diet and stress.
7. Dehydration is a major concern
8. Treatment: corticosteroids and immunosuppressants to reduce inflammation
9. Regional Ileitis is also called Crohn's Ileitis or disease
difficult or faulty/eating
difficult or faulty/speech or words
difficult or faulty/voice or sound
enema (injection) and colonic irrigation
1. Intro. of solutions into rectum and colon
2. Stimulates bowel activity and colon emptying
3. Also used to introduce food or medicine for therapeutic use because of absorption of fluid into colon's circulatory system.
4. Enemas are also used for anesthesia and to aid in area barium X-Rays.
5. A barium enema introduces barium sulfate in solution to aid in X-raying and examining colon. Barium enema X-ray of colon.
6. Used every 2-3 days for patients who are neurologically incapable of voluntary defecation.
7. Colonic irrigation is a dangerous but popular alternative medicine practice.
8. It is a bowel cleansing procedure carried out with specialized equipment.
bol/o- (lump; cast; bowl; choice bit of food)
Meta/bol/ism meta (change); bolus (lump); -ism (state of)
1. Mass of masticated food ready for swallowing into stomach or a preparation of medicine to be ingested.
2. Cata/bol/ism (breakdown/lump/state of): breaking down of complex substances by body cells into their simplest component compounds, releasing heat and energy, and producing water and carbon dioxide.
3. Ana/bol/ism (throwing up/lump/state of): simple substances are converted to more complex compounds
chymos means juice
1. Partially digested food and digestive juices
2. Found in stomach and small intestine
3. Multicolored and nearly liquid
4. These villae or shaggy hairs line the small intestine where the chyme is found.
faulty and painful/intestine/process of
*dys- (bad, faulty, painful)
1. Etiology: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, parasites
(like worms), and chemical irritants.
2. It is characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, passage of water, mucous, and blood from colon, abdominal cramps or pain, and tenesmus, which is spastic contractions of anal or vesical sphincter with pain and persistent involuntary ineffective straining efforts for elimination.
3. Severe tox/emia may develop
4. Tx includes antibiotics, diet, hydration, and rest.
Shigellosis (AKA: bacillary dysentery)
Causes severe forms of dysentery and is caused by Shigella, a bacillus bacteria.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea
1. Alfred Giard
2. Processes flagella and lives in small intestines of humans and other animals. They are pear-shaped, have two nuclei, and have four pairs of flagella. Found in remote streams.
3. Causes diarrhea, cramps, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, weakness, abdominal distention, greasy stool, and belching.
1. Most common is anal form
2. Abnormal tube-like passage from a normal cavity or tube to a free surface or another cavity.
1. Caused by over-secretion of gastric juices containing pepsin and hydrochloric acid
Hiare means to stand open; hernia means to protrude or rupture.
Rupturing of stomach up through Esophageal Hiatus of diaphragm.
1. Protrusion is a part or a structure through normal tissues.
2. 25 different types
bile-like/flowing or Severe Diarrhea
(chol/rein means "bile-like/flowing")
1. Characterized by severe diarrhea, muscle cramping, and vomiting.
2. Caused by bacteria Vibrio cholerae. Their toxins cause the above symptoms.
3. Spread through water and food contamination from patients' feces.
4. Profuse watery diarrhea causes a liter of fluid loss per hour
5. Circulatory collapse, cyanosis, destruction of kidneys, and metabolic acidosis.
6. 50-60% die if untreated with fluids, electrolytes, and antibiotics
7. Prevention: a vaccine is available to people traveling in endemic areas.
8. Drink only boiled or decontaminated water and eat only well cooked food.
*omphalos (umbilicus, navel)
*cele (rupture or protrudes)
1. Almost always a congenital hernia or rupture of navel, umbilical cord, or a viscera out through an abdominal defect in abdominal wall near navel.
*pan- (all or total)
1. Pancreas is a compound gland
2. Distal end is endocrine function, secreting insulin into bloodstream.
3. Proximal portion to duodenum is exocrine in function, secreting enzymes down common bile duct into duodenum and breaking down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
4. Hormone insulin regulates blood sugar levels and carbohydrate metabolism.
5. Low levels of insulin in this organ is referred to as diabetes mellitus.
6. With acute and chronic pancreatitis there is pus, hemorrhaging, gangrene, and necrosis of gland's tissues.
7. Characterized by abdominal pain and tenderness, nausea and vomiting, and hiccups.
8. There is rigidity around umbilical region and gas belching.
to pass through; sweet
1. Type I: insulin dependent, juvenile onset or true diabetes.
2. Dependent on Insulin because beta cells in Islets of Langerhan's decrease in size and number.
3. Long pre/clinical period with abrupt onset of clinical symptoms. Dependency on insulin and a tendency for ketoacidosis.
4. Several syndromes including auto/immune, genetic, and/or environmental.
5. Appears/occurs at or around puberty.
1. Type II: Stable, ketosis-resistant, and maturity onset diabetes
2. Patient is not dependent on insulin and shows no ketosis
3. Multiple syndromes including obesity and non-obese, familial pattern, and it occurs around 40.
to pass through; within/savory, dull, or lifeless
1. Vitamin B1 deficiency, known as thiamin. Richest sources are dry yeast and wheat germ. Also found in seeds, in nuts, legumes, vegetables, and meats like pork.
2. Causes primarily neurological problems of body's peripheral nerves. Paralysis, limb wasting, edema, and heart failure are common. Also affects brain and cardiovascular system.
3. Characterized by weakness or fatigue, irritability, poor memory, sleep disturbances, anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal distension and discomfort.
4. Caused by stress, hypothyroidism, infections, pregnancy, lactation, or chronic alcoholism.
1. Deficiency in water-soluble vitamin called niacin
2. Characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances, erythema, followed by de/squamation, nervousness, and mental disorders.
3. Cause is usually poor diet, alcoholism, nutritional mal/absorption problems, as well as various diseases.
"Rachis" - backbone
*rachial (spinal column)
1. Deficiency in Vitamin D that impairs skeletal and cartilage growth, especially in minors.
2. Lack of sunshine also alters calcium and phosphorous metabolism by body.
3. Characterized by abnormal bone formation, and cause of knock-knees and bowlegs. Bone nodules, skull and chest deformities, spinal curvatures, abnormal teeth, and an enlarged square head are often documented. Muscle pain, liver, and spleen enlargement, sweating, paleness, diarrhea, and tenderness to touch are also common.
4. Diet rich in Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and sun exposure.
1. Vitamin C deficiency resulting from lack of fresh fruit and vegetables.
2. Leads to abnormal bone and tooth development and hemorrhagic body tissues.
3. Characterized by sallow (yellow) complexion, weakness, and pain in joints.
4. Results in: skin sores, anemia, bleeding gums, loss of teeth, hemorrhaging mucous tissues, and halitosis.
5. Treatment is Vitamin C supplements and dietary changes.
-inflammation of the largest serous membrane in the body
near/surgical puncture to remove fluid
1. Withdrawal of fluid from any cavity of body.
2. Used to remove ascitic fluid from body.
Upper G.I. Barium Series
1. Patient swallows barium sulfate
2. Covers esophagus through duodenum
3. Normal findings include: size, shape, contour, patency, filling, positioning, and flow of barium through these upper GI structures.
rectum or anus/inflamed
*procto- (rectum and anus)
-caused by sexually transmitted diseases
spleen, spleno-, or lieno-
C. Stores 500 ml of blood that can be contracted out in 1 minute
D. Destroys old RBCs and Platelets
E. Produces RBCs before birth and after in cases of anemia or hemorrhage
*steat/o-, stea-, lipo-, adipo- (fat)
1. Abnormal amount of fat in feces
2. Frothy foul-smelling floating feces
3. Seen in celiac disease, mal/absorption syndromes, and in conditions with poor fat absorption by small intestine.
4. Associated with many conditions
oil/flow: causes inflamed skin
1. Increase in excretion of fats or oils usually from hair follicles.
2. Selenium sulfide, shampoos, topical and oral corticosteroids, topical antibiotics, treatment of underlying problems, avoid sweating and irritation.
*taeppe (a narrow band)
1. Series of thousands of hooks and suckers for intestine wall attachment.
2. May cause intestinal obstruction and dys/pepsia
*volvo-, volvere (to twist or roll)
1. Twisting of bowel upon itself causing obstruction
2. Caused by prolapsing mesentery
3. Often occurs in sigmoid colon or at ileo/cecal valve area
4. A neo/natal volvulus causes vomiting, distension, constipation, and no bowel sounds.
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