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What is PECS?
Originally designed to be used in classrooms with nonverbal children. It is a nonverbal communication system in which the client uses pictures to communicate what they want and/ or need.
How is PECS different from a picture schedule?
They do not have anything functionally in common. A picture schedule is a means of communication what the therapist/ teacher wants the client to do. A picture schedule is a nonverbal method of teaching a client to follow instructions.
Why is it important to teach a nonverbal client a functional communication system?
So then they can communicate what they want and their needs. A client who can express their basic wants/ needs will be happier and much less likely to develop undesired behaviors that function to obtain basic wants/ needs in the future.
Describe the type/size of pictures for initial teaching vs. those for a client well-versed in using PECS.
For initial teaching you use "I really like this a lot" items and activities. Bubbles are a good initial teaching activity because they pop and end on their own. A toy such as a play figurine that you have to take away from the client to do another trial is generally not good for an initial teaching item.
Before you start a PECS teaching trial, what do you need?
Give the client free access to the item/ activity to make sure that they want what is in the picture at that particular moment.
What should you do if during a PECS trial, the client verbally requests the item/activity (or makes a verbal approximation)?
If the client gives a verbal approximation or says the item/ activity, do not make or her also give you the picture. Reinforce the verbal request immediately. A verbal request should be reinforced with a bigger/ longer reinforcer than a picture exchange.
Define a mand
A mand is a request that serves the function of getting the speaker what they asked for.
Why should behavior analysts use manding to teach beginning language skills?
Manding works to teach language. Manding is a useful tool in teaching language to special needs clients in that it capitalizes on the client's motivation. When a client learns that talking helps them control what happens and when it happens, the client's rate of talking will increase. Manding is an easy teaching tool in that there are no required materials and it's easy to learn how to do.
When conducting verbal imitation (echoic) trials, why is it important to use "say (word)" rather than just "(word)?"
Because you do not want the client to start repeating everything. You want the client to learn that "say" is the signal for them to repeat what follows. It is a good idea to insert a slight pause between "say" and what you want the client to repeat as this will often prevent the client from repeating "say."
Define and give an example of a continuation and an initiation mand. Which is the easiest to teach first?
A continuation mand is when the client requests for more of something that is already ongoing. For example, you have pushed the client on the swing several times and then you are deliberately stop the swing. The client requests, "swing" for you to continue the activity.
An initiation mand is when the client requests for something to start. For example, the class has just come outside on the playground and then mands, "swing" for you to start the activity.
It is much easier to teach a client to use continuation mands first.
During mand training, why should you teach both nouns (items/activities) as well as verbs (actions)?
Because nouns are more concrete and visible as well as often easier to get sufficient repetition. Once the client has the basic idea of manding, the majority of manding targets should be verbs.
Define and give an example of a negative mand. Why is it important to teach this type of mand?
A negative mand is when a person is reluctant to teach a client how to tell an adult what they do not want to do. It is important to teach this type of manding in that we want a client to learn appropriate methods of communications rather than inappropriate ones.
When should a therapist prompt a negative mand? When should a therapist not prompt a negative mand?
Once the client has already done something inappropriate, that is not the time to prompt language because you don't want the client to learn this sequence is what works. Once the undesired behavior occurs, you have missed the teaching moment. The time to prompt a negation mand is before the inappropriate behavior occurs.
For how many trials should a therapist continue to work on teaching a mand?
One- two teaching trials. Should equal the client's level of motivation.
Define and give an example of differentiated reinforcement.
The level of the reinforcer should equal the level of the response.
Why should a therapist directly prompt the language the client should use rather than saying something like, "Use your words?"
Because we do not want the client to learn that they must first wait on an adult to do or say something before speaking. We want the client to learn to speak when they have a need or want.
Although manding can be taught during any activity, what is the ideal activity for teaching manding?
During play is one of the best times to teach language
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