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Earth Science Lab EXAM #2
Terms in this set (40)
_____________ rocks are formed from the cooling and crystallization of molten rock, generically called a melt.
___________ is found beneath the surface. _________ is found above the surface.
form from the slow cooling of magma
form from the quick cooling of lava
The largest type of volcano is the _________ volcano.
Shield volcanoes are characterized by _______ viscosity.
___________ volcanoes are typically formed at hot spots and at divergent boundaries such as mid ocean ridges.
__________ volcanoes are most common at convergent plate boundaries that form subduction zones.
Igneous rocks are identified based on a combination of their __________ and their __________.
Intrusive rocks have __________ texture, which is very coarse with individual mineral crystals visible to the naked eye.
_____________ texture is where each crystal is too small to be seen with the naked eye, or non-existent.
Glassy texture (extrusive) is the result of _____________________ _________ cooling of lava, leaving no evidence of crystal structure.
___________ texture is created when lava is cooled before all of the gases can be released, causing bubbles to be preserved within the rock.
_______________ texture is when the melt begins its cooling process underground, creating large
, but then finishes cooling above Earth's surface.
porphyritic (both intrusive and extrusive)
A ___________________ rock is a rock that has formed from the deposition of sediments at Earth's surface.
What are the agents of erosion?
wind, water, ice, gravity
A lake or pond environment has _______ energy because the water is not constantly flowing.
A river has ________ energy, transporting a variety of grain sizes.
Sedimentary rocks that are cemented together are called _______ or _______.
Sedimentary rocks that contain a significant amount of biologic material such as plant fragments, bones, or fossils are called _________.
_____________ sedimentary rocks are formed when ions/minerals precipitate from a solution or are left behind when the fluid evaporates.
The level of uniformity of grain size in a sedimentary rock is called _________ or grain arrangement.
Olivine and pyroxene are considered ___________ because they contain high temperature minerals.
Quartz and muscovite are considered ________ because they contain low temperature minerals.
The Principle of Uniformitarianism
the key to understanding the past is to understand the present
Where is another example of high energy?
Where is another example of low energy?
_____________________ rocks are formed when a parent rock is subject to heat and pressure, changing the texture and composition of the protolith.
____________ metamorphism is rocks formed by direct contact with a metamorphic agent such as hot fluids in a volcanic environment.
__________ metamorphism occur at convergent plate boundaries or in large areas.
__________ metamorphism occurs when Earth is hit with a meteor.
layering in metamorphic rocks
Protolith is also known as the _________ rock.
a scaly texture that clearly shows physical alignment of grains but also shows larger, individual minerals
What is the highest grade of metamorphic banding?
Score you made on this Quizlet in class...
Bilterimous coal =
Where the crust/mantle meet is called the ________.
petrified wood =
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