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Developmental Psychology Exam #2
Terms in this set (121)
swiss psychologist that had a massive impact on developmental psychology, creator of the stage theories
stage from 0-2 years
stage from 2-7 years
stage from 7-12 years
piaget didn't care about ages, just _____________________
stages are ____________________ _____________________ than the previous stages
across the board
this stage theory says that a change in one domain depends across other domains
this stage theory says every kid passes through the same stages and cannot go back
this stage theory says that each stage is better than the last
knowing if something exists even if you can't perceive it at the moment (in between sensorimotor and pre-operational)
knowing that multiple mental representations exist and you can think about them at the same time
being able to think logically
a newborn is considered a "bundle of reflexes". they must ___________________ __________________
rule as to how things work, how to act on things and how things work
fitting new information into an old scheme
revise an old scheme to fit new information
creating new schema with assimilation or accomodation
old schemes don't go away if they are still __________________
what is the major goal of the sensorimotor stage?
idea that you can remember an object exists even if its not available to the senses
"out of sight, out of mind" and "reflex blobs" are part of what substage of the sensorimotor stage?
egocentrism and primary circular reaction are part of what substage of the sensorimotor stage?
not necessarily selfish, but consider the world relative to themselves
secondary circular reaction, contingent reinforcement and the outside world are part of what substage of the sensorimotor stage?
children understanding difference between means and ends is part of what substage of the sensorimotor stage?
tertiary circular reaction and "baby scientists" are part of what substage of the sensorimotor stage?
true mental representations occur at what substage of the sensorimotor stage
says that babies can hold representation in the mind and they repeat it later
in psychology, constructs are ___________________ by behaviors
the ability of newborns to reproduce some specific behaviors such as certain facial expressions that they have seen in others
metzolf and moore's neonatal experiments were not _________________, but very ____________________
neonatal deferred imitation posed validity threat to Piaget's claims based on pretend play because play requires more than _________________ ____________________
what is object permanence measured by?
what are mental representations defined by?
the drawbridge task utilized an __________________ event perceptually similar but conceptually different than the ______________________ event
if infants are dishabituated to the impossible event, what do they have?
preoperational deficits, egocentrism, class inclusion, appearance reality distinction and symbols all make up what stage?
cognitive feature of preoperational children; unconstrained by adult understandings of reality, they may believe, for example, that it is possible to turn into a racecar
believing that inanimate objects are real and have human qualities, seen in the preoperational stage
an example of this is breaking a cookie in half and the child believes that there is now 2 cookies
egocentrism does NOT equal being ___________________; it just means that babies cannot take another point of view at the same time as their own
during the "3 mountains task", children would only answer with things on what side of the mountain?
what is wrong with the 3 mountains task?
a cold-blooded task has a lot of ________________ involved
a manipulation check: can you _______________ the thought process?
in the Snoopy objects as symbols experiment, little Snoopy is both an ______________ and a ________________ at the same time
dual representations, memory
in the Terry the Troll experiment, there is no need for the child to have _____________ ___________________, they just need to have their ____________________
properties of the object remain the same even if you rearrange the shape or spatial arrangement
across the board
there are so many tasks because change should be ___________________ __________ __________________
_________________________ children should fail:
3 mountains, Big/Little Snoopy, Symbols, Scale Errors and all conservations
validity arguments for why preoperational children should fail are all about the _______________, not about the theory
what does concrete mean?
dawn of logical thought
this occurs in the formal operations stage
using the scientific method to think
a lot of people actually ____________ stages
about what percent of the US reach formal operations?
this russian theorist believed that knowledge always existed in social and cultural context; the knowledge is already "in" the child
piaget said that development is a ___________________ enterprise, while vygotsky says that it is a ________________ enterprise
vygotsky says that these are the things that facilitate cognition
vygotsky says that cognition is always embedded in a context of __________________ ______________________
mind to mind
taking information from an outside source and putting it into one's own mind
when kids talk to themselves, but not in an egocentric way; they are using language with tools to learn
when kids talk to themselves, only considering their own mental representations
how things transform on an evolutionary time scale
how things transform in historical context
how things transform in one's life span
moment to moment
how things transform in the moment
detailed observation and analysis of changes in a cognitive process as the process unfolds over a several day or week period of time; don't know what happens in between the stages
convenient groups, school-taught
in the child street vendor experiment, the children used ___________________ ___________________ in street math (which allowed them to be better at word problems) and used __________________ ___________________ routines in formal testing
zone of proximal development
measure of potential development, readiness for development/learning; shows where the child may need more help
process by which more knowledgeable people (typically an adult) facilitate learning in less knowledgeable people
individual, child in social context
WHO do you study to study cognitive development?
Piaget says: ?
Vygotsky says: ?
in mental structures, in the interaction
WHERE is the knowledge in cognitive development?
Piaget says: ?
Vygotsky says: ?
little scientist, shoulder stander
Metaphors of cognitive development:
Piaget says: ?
Vygotsky says: ?
vygotsky says that we should really listen, analyze and report verbal and behavior protocols, which lead to him developing what type of approach?
Is there a universality of knowledge and development across cultures?
Is there a generality of knowledge?
conflict w/ external state of affairs, cultural tools
Why do children acquire new ways of thinking?
abrupt/stage like, continuous
What is the manner of change?
theory of mind
how other people are thinking, feeling and doing; implies kids' understanding of mental states, which allows them to predict other's behaviors in the future
understanding the people around you
missing input from environment and conversations
why are children with ASD or who are born deaf showing delays with theory of mind?
visual habituation tasks
tasks where you display something to a child until they get bored or stop looking
something that can have intentions
green blob studies
these studies reasoned that if infants do attribute intentions to non-humans then they should attribute goals, perception and emotions to agents, even if the agent doesn't have human characteristics
terry the troll
in this experiment, the "objectness" of _____________ was taken away; kids don't have to manipulate multiple representations
development of language is _______________ __________________, meaning that multiple things affect the course of language; one thing can interact with other things or impact on its own
infant directed speech that helps babies break up the speech stream. high pitched and lots of pauses; "valleys and troughs"
when babies are given the choice to turn towards someone talking in a normal voice or towards someone speaking in motherese, which side will they turn to more?
conversational frames put a speech into a _____________________ context
infants can distinguish 2 types of speech and prefer _____________________
vocal interactions between mothers and infants that resemble the verbal exchanges of more mature conversations
babies are born with the ability to be sensitive to all ___________________ for all languages
this phenomenon says information appears, sticks arond for a little, then eventually goes away
infants can ____________________ through sounds and make _______________________ based on the words/nonwords to distinguish between the two
seeing words is different than ___________________ them
when given sounds that match with the visual, babies looked at them __________ of the time rather than the nonmatching audio/visual
a baby's version of a word. ex. "wah wah" for water
comprehension is _________________ than production in language development
words children can produce
words that the child understands
early vowel-like sounds that babies produce
_______________________ is important because it allows babies to exercise their vocal tract
strings of babbles with the same intonation as adult speech; not necessarily words, but sounds like a conversation
use the sound more
when infants a sound, mothers may respond more to that sound than another. what does this lead the baby to do?
this occurs at 14 months, an example is "cookie yummy"
when a word is used to refer to all classes of object
when a word stands for one thing only
says that a baby's first word is often said incorrectly
similar to over extension, when a baby uses a single word to stand for an entire category
babies learn ________ new words each day after age 2
a word __________ occurs when the child starts learning language at a progressive rate and continues to move up and up
the _____________ for language acquisition says that language must be learned like everything else through operant conditioning and is shaped by the environment
language cues and social context are enough for discovering _____________ for using a language
language is ___________________ and __________________ ; meaning that you can create new sentences and interpret many different phrases/words
language acquisition device
chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally, and only need exposure to language to activate it
something that occurs in nature that creates 2 seperate groups, is not manipulated by an experimenter
if you learn a second language, over time, your knowledge of your _____________ language deteriorates
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