31 terms

Module 3.3

Psychosocial development
according to Erikson, development that encompasses changes both in the understandings individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others' behavior
Initiative-versus-guilt stage
according to Erikson, the period during which children aged 3 to 6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action
a person's identity or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual
Collectivistic orientation
a philosophy that promotes the notion of interdependence
Individualistic orientation
a philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual
Race dissonance
the phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority value or people
Gender Identity
The perception of oneself as male or female
Gender schema
a cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender
Gender constancy
the belief that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors
a state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes
Functional play
play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3 year olds
Constructive play
play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something
Parallel play
action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other
Onlooker play
action in which children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate themselves
Associative play
play in which two or more children actually interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or material, although they do not do the same thing
Cooperative play
play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games or devising contests
Authoritative parents
parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose word is law. They value strict, unquestioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expressions of disagreement
Permissive parents
parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children
Authoritative parents
parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but who try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way
Uninvolved parents
parents who show almost no interest in their children and indifferent, rejecting behavior
Cycle of violence hypothesis
the theory that the abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children
Psychological maltreatment
abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional,or physical functioning
the ability to overcome circumstance that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage
Moral development
the changes in people's sense of justice and of what is right and wrong and in their behavior related to moral issues
Prosocial behavior
helping behavior that benefits others
Abstract modeling
the process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles
the understanding of what another individual feels
intentional injury or harm to another person
Emotional self-regulation
the capability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity
Instrumental aggression
aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal
Relational aggression
nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person's psychological well-being