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according to Erikson, development that encompasses changes both in the understandings individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others' behavior
according to Erikson, the period during which children aged 3 to 6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action
a philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual
the phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority value or people
the belief that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors
action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other
action in which children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate themselves
play in which two or more children actually interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or material, although they do not do the same thing
play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games or devising contests
parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose word is law. They value strict, unquestioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expressions of disagreement
parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children
parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but who try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way
parents who show almost no interest in their children and indifferent, rejecting behavior
Cycle of violence hypothesis
the theory that the abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children
abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional,or physical functioning
the ability to overcome circumstance that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage
the changes in people's sense of justice and of what is right and wrong and in their behavior related to moral issues
the process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles
the capability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity
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