234 terms

AP ES Winter Final Exam Review

Weiland AP ES exam review material

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Aral Sea-why interesting
Soviet Union, north of china. Diverting water from the Aral sea and its two feeder rivers mostly for irrigation has created a major ecological, economic, and health disaster. It is shrinking since 1960. It was once highly fished and propseroused is now polluted and practically worthless. Badly polluted.
refers to the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other organic chemicals in an organism. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost. (430)
biotic potential
Maximum rate at which the population of a given species can increase when there are no limits on its rate of growth. (162)
animal that feeds on other animals. (60)
carrying capacity
(K) the maximum population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain indefinitely without degrading the habitat. It's the limit to the popuation growth. Line at the top of the graph where the biotic potential cant go over.
CERCLA (Superfund)
this law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided broad Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endagner public health or the environment. Pays for clean up ($ from taxes)
Evolution in which two or more species interact and exert selective pressures on each other that can lead each species to undergo adaptations. One species can lead to changes in the gene pool of another species. (plants and insects)
production of two useful forms of energy, such as high- temperature heat or steam and electricity, from the same fuel source. (increase efficiency)
convergent evolution
the development of similar structures in organisms that do not share recent common ancestors. (unrelated relationship) dolphin and sharks
Decomposition/ decomposer
organisim that digests parts of dead organisms and cast-off fragments and wastes of living organisms by breaking down the complex organic molecules in those materials into simpler inorganic compounds and then absorbing the soluble nutrients. Decomposers consist of various bacteria and fungi. Complex simple
when nitrogen leaves the soil as specialized bacteria in waterlogged soil and in the bottom sediments of lakes, oceans, and swamps convert NH3 to NH4 back into nitrite and nitrate ions and then into nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrous oxide gas N2O. These gases are released into the atmosphere to begin the nitrogen cycle. (75)
detritus feeder
Organisms that extracts nutrients from fragments of dead organisms and their cast-off parts and organic wastes. Eat dead things on the ground. Not considered Decomposers
Parts of dead organisms and cast-off fragments and wastes of living organisms.
divergent evolution
is the accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species, usually a result of diffusion of the same species to different and isolated environments which blocks the gene flow among the distinct populations allowing differentiated fixation of characteristics through genetic drift and natural selection. 2 Species split. SPECIATION
A community where populations of different species interact with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy. Biological and Physical Environment Living= biotic + Nonliving= abiotic
Eutrophication-natural and cultural
Physical, chemical, and biological changes that take place after a lake or estuary receives inputs of plant nutrients- mostly nitrates and phosphates- from natural erosions and runoff from surrounding land basins.
Eutrophication leads
Greening of a lake caused by fertilizer runoff. Algae dies, the bacteria spreads and soaks up all the oxygen which kills the fish and creates dead zones.
Cultural Eutrophication
human inputs of nutrients from the atmosphere and from nearby urban and agricultural areas can accelerate the eutrophication of lakes.
flat valley floor next to a stream channel. For legal purposes, the term often applies to any low area that has the potential for flooding, including certain costal areas. They are good farming because its very fertile land. Its constanly replenished with fresh slit washed down in a flood. SILT
Gross primary productivity
(GPP) rate at which an ecosystem's producers capture and store a given amount of chemical energy as biomass in a given length of time. Total energy plant stores
Net Primary Productivity
Net amount of primary production after cost of plant respieration is included. GPP-R= NPP
Gene pool
sum total of all genes found in the individuals of the population of a particular species.
the heating and partial combustion of coal to release volatile gases, such as methane and carbon monoxide; after pollutants are washed out, these gases become efficient, clean-burning fuel. Makes fuel portable. Gas from coal
Hydrogen sulfide, H2S
Common chemical found in fluids of hydrothermal vents. When seawater is exposed to the sulfate in volcanic rock below the ocean floor, hydrogen sulfide is formed.
James Bay, Quebec
Bay that transports water. 16,000 megawatss of hydroelectricity. Dam works to generate electricity. Not a tall dam
K strategists
-fewer and larger offspring; - High parental care and protection of offspring; - later reproduction age; - most offspring lives to reproduce; - larger adults; - adapted to stable climate/environmental conditions; - lower population growth rate(r) ; - pop size is stable and close to carrying capacity; -specialist niche; - high ability to compete; - late successional species;
R strategists
Many small offspring; - little t no parenting/ protection; - early reproductive age; - most offspring don't live to reproduce; - small adults; adapted to unstable climate/environment ; Higher population growth rate(r) ; pop. Size changes above/below c.c; - generalist niche; - low ability to compete; - early successional species;
Kissimmee Rive
the physical effects of channelization, including alteration of the system's hydrologic characteristics, largely eliminated river and floodplain wetlands and degraded fish and wildlife values of the Kissimmee River ecosystem. Restoration project that is part of the everglades
limiting factor
too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimum range or tolerance. This is how population is controlled.
is made up of two parts the crust and the mantle(upper and lower mantle). It contains nonrenewable fossil fuels and minerals we use as well as renewable soil chemicals needed for plant life
a naturally occurring gas, which is associated with decomposition and with oil deposits. It is a greenhouse gas and burning it, or releasing it to the atmosphere will lead to the creation of carbon dioxide. Burning= CO2. Byproduct of decomposition
connected to damaging DNA
mitigation banking
reduces greenhouse gas emissions to slow down the rate of temperature increase and buy time to learn more about how the earth's climate system works and to shift to other noncarbon energy options. Companies use it to make artificial wetlands
Mono Lake
desert lake with an unusually productive ecosystem, based on brine shrimp that grow in the lake, and critical nesting habitat for two million migratory birds that feed on the shrimp. Similar to Aral Sea. Deprived of water
North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement
way of life for a species
Generalist niche
wide niches Generalist species tolerate a wide range of condtions
Specialist niche
narrow niche specialist species can only tolerate a narrow range of condtions
Fundamental niche
the fully potential range of physical, chemical, and biological condtions and resources a species could theoretically use. (everything)
Realized niche
to survive and avoid competition, a species usually occupies only part of its fundamental
Happens when ammonia not taken up by plants may undergo nitrification. Two step process. is the biological oxidation of ammonia with oxygen into nitrite followed by the oxidation of these nitrites into nitrates. Chemical process
Nitrogen dioxide
is the chemical compound with the formula NO2
Nitrogen fixation
converation of atmospheric nitrogen gas into forms useful to plants by lightning, bacteria, and cyanobacteria; it is part of the nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen becomes ammonia
Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms, and the nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from air into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. Synthetically-produced nitrates are key ingredients of industrial fertilizers, and also key pollutants in causing the eutrophication of water systems. 78% of earth
Complex process that takes place in cells of green plants. Radiant energy from the sun is used to combine CO2 and H2O to produce O2 and carbohydrates such as glucose (C6H12O6) and other nutrient molecules
Group of individual organisms of the same species living in a particular area
primary succession
ecological succession in a bare area that has never been occupied by a community of organisms.
Secondary succession
ecological succession in an area in which natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil is not destroyed.
Reclamation of mine land includes
restoring land, bringing in new top soil, grading/smoothing land, phytoremediation. (the glen)
the action of remedying something, especially the reversal or stopping of damage to the environment.
Restoration ecology
Group of organisms that resemble one another in appearance, behavior, chemical makeup and processes, and genetic structure. Organisms that reproduce sexually are classified as members of the same species only if they can actually or potentially interbreed with one another and produce fertile offspring.
Species richness
number of different species contained in a community.
ability of earth's various systems, including human cultural systems and economies, to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely.
occurs when two or more processes interact so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of their separate effects. 2 is greater than 1
Antarctic Treaty of 1961
regulates international trade
Clean Air Act of 1972
one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of smog and air pollution in general. The use by governments to enforce clean air standards has contributed to an improvement in human health and longer life spans.
The Montreal Protocol 1987 amended in 1990 and 1992re
CFCs reduced
Three Mile Island
the nuclear power plant widely known for having been the site of the most significant accident in United States commercial nuclear energy, on March 28, 1979, when TMI-2 suffered a partial meltdown.
Process in which water is absorbed by the root systems of plants, moves up through the plants, passes through pores in their leaves or other parts, and evaporates into the atmosphere as water vapor.
trophic level
all organisms that are the same number of energy transfers away from the original source of energy that enter an ecosystem. 1st level= all producers 2nd level= all herbivores
symbiotic relationships
necessary for the survival of at least one of the organisms involved; associations in which one organism lives on another or where one partner lives inside the other.
Keystone species
control interactions in a community (species and numbers). Regulates what happens and if this species is lost the whole population changes.
Foundation species
control/create habitat. Elephants knock down tress to make a habitat.
Indicatior species
bright species, 1st to dissapear/damage (Bees)
Non-native species
Originally come from outside, migrate or introduced
Native species
Original, always been there
Generalists species
Broad niches
Specialists species
narrow niches
kills others
Efficiencies of an average coal-fired power plant
30-35% =efficiency of coal
What is CITES
Convention on International trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora an international agreement between the government aim control international trade of wild animals to make sure it doesn't endanger the it works
CITES Apendix 1
Animals close to extinction. nearly all trade of these animals is illegal (pandas)
Migratory Bird Act of 1918
USA entered into agreements with 4 other nations(Canada, Mexico, Japan, and Russia)This law makes it illegal to hunt, kill, sell birds that are migratory Can't take any of the bird's feathers or nests
Lacey Act of 1900
US law prohibits the transport of illegally captured animals across state lines -1st federal law protecting wildlife today its expanded to prevent the import of nonnatives
Habitat Fragmentation
Happens when one large continuous area of habitat is reduced in area and , species into smaller/isolated groups that divided into smaller more scattered, and isolated. This leads to diversity because it divides.
is the study of the distribution of species. Spatially and temporarily.
Island geography
-large islands= more species and -further away from main land= less diverse
Intrinsic values
aesthetics, see wildlife
Extrinsic values
sell/calculate ($)
What characteristics make species prone to extinction
-low reproductive rate (k)- specialized niche -narrow distribution- feeds at high trophic level -fixed migratory patterns-rare -commercially valuable-large territories
Local extinction
when a species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited but is still found elsewhere in the world.
Ecological Extinction
When so few members of a species are let that it can no longer play its ecological role in the biological communities where it is found.
Background Extinction
normal extinction of various species as a result of changes in local environmental conditions
Mass Extinction
A catastrophic, widespread often global event in which major groups of species are wiped out over a short time compared with normal (background extinction).
Biological evolution
Must have enough genetic VARIABILITY for a trait to exist; The trait must be HERITABLE; Trait must lead to DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTION. It must enable individuals with the trait to leave more offsprirng than other members of the population.
doubling time formula
Td= 70/ r (in percentage)
Zone of the earth's interior between its core and its crust. most of it is solid rock Iron & Nickel - under its rigid outer part is the Asthenosphere - hot, partly melted pliable rock that flows and can be deformed like sot plastic
inner zone of the earth. -extremely hot Hot iron radioactive - solid inner core liquid outer core
In the development of aluminum burned or melted -alluminum process= expensive- recycle aluminum saves 98% of energy
methyl anhydrates
frozen rock found in deep sea - expensive and hard to get
Demographic transition
as countries become economically developed, their birth and death rates tend to decline.
Preindustrial Stage of the Demographic transition
Little population growth due to high infant mortality
Transitional Stage of the Demographic transition
Industrialization begins, death rate drops and birth rate remains high
Industrial stage of the Demographic transition
Birth rate drops and approaches death rate
Global warming
Warming of the earth's atmosphere because of increases in the concentrations of one or more greenhouse gases primarily as a result of human activities, melts glaciers, raises ocean levels, thermal expansion of oceans also raised ocean levels
Greenhouse effect
natural effect that releases heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the earth's surface. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and other gases in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) absorb some of infrared radiation (heat) radiated by the earth's surface. Their molecules vibrate and transform the absorbed energy into longer- wavelength infrared radiation (heat) in the troposphere. If the atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases increase and other natural processes do not remove them, the average temperature of the lower atmosphere will increase gradually.
What processes remove/add CO2 to the earth's atmosphere?
Remove CO2 by growing plants, growing trees, dissolving CO2 in water Add burn things, drive cars, breathing
What is overfishing?
Harvesting so many fish of a species, especially immature fish, that not enough breeding stock is left to replenish the species and it becomes unprofitable to harvest them. -commercial depletion-extinction
Who are the whaling nations?
Japan, Iceland, Norweigh, Greenland,Russia, and more.
International whaling commission -an international body set up by the terms of the international convention for regulation of whaling which was signed in DC . Most people in this are largely opposed to the practice of whaling.
How does one explain the fluctuation of CO2 in the atmosphere on a yearly basis?
deforestation -clearing grasslands -burning fossil fuels
What causes the seasons?
as earth makes its annual revolution around the sun on an axis tilted about 23.5, various regions are tipped toward or away from the sun. the resulting variations in the amount of solar energy reaching the earth create the seasons in the north and south hemispheres.
Coriollis effect
spinning of earth. Air isn't connected to earth so it gets pulled. Because of this effect the earth;s rotation deflects the movement of the air over different parts of the earth distributing heat and moisture in the troposphere.
proves in which various chemicals in upper layers of soil are dissolved and carried to lower layers and, in some cases, to groundwater.
Soil horizion
horizontal zones that make up a particular mature soil. Each horizon has a distinct texture and composition that vary with different types of soil.
O horizon
the top layer, surface litter layer, it consists of freshly fallen undecomposed or partially decomposed leaves, twigs, crop wastes, animal waste, fungi, and other organic materials. Brown or black in color.
A horizon
top soil layer, is a porous mixture of the partially decomposed bodies of dead plants/animals called "humus" and inorganic materials such as clay, silt, and sand. Very fertile soil that produces high crop yields.
B/C horizon
B(subsoil) and C(parent material) contains most of a soil's inorganic matter, mostly broken down rock consisting of varying mixtures of sand, slit, clay, and gravel much of it transported by water from "a horizon". The "c horizion" lies on a base of unweathered parent material normally bedrock.
Carbon cycle
cyclic movement of carbon in different different chemical forms from the environment chemical forms from the environment to to organisms and then back to the environment
nitrogen cyclye
cyclic movement of nitrogen in organisms and back to the environment.
Water cycle
collects, purifies, distributes, and recycles the earth's fixed supply of water. Powered by energy from the sun that evaporates water into the atmosphere that comes back to earth because of gravity.
Sulfur cycle
cyclic movement of sulfur in various Chemical forms from the environment to organisms and back to the environment
Unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers in the United States and other developed countries.
agricultural revolution
Gradual shift from small, mobile hunting and gathering bands to settled agricultural communities in which people survived by learning how to breed and raise wild animals and to cultivate wild plants near where they lived. It began 10,000/12,000 years ago. Compare environmental revolution, hunter/gatherers, industrial/medical revolution, and information and globalization revolution.
Variety of different species (species diversity), genetic variability among individuals within each species (genetic diversity), variety of ecosystems (ecological diversity), and functions such as energy flow and matter cycling needed for the survival of species and biological communities (functional diversity).
common-property Examples
are clean air, fish in parts of the ocean not under the control of a coastal country, migratory birds, gases of the lower atmosphere, and the ozone content of the upper atmosphere (stratosphere
Resource that people normally are free to use; each user can deplete or degrade the available supply. Most are renewable and owned by no one.).
Sensible and careful use of natural resources by humans.
Person concerned with using natural areas and wildlife in ways that sustain them for current and future generations of humans and other forms of life.
developed country
is highly industrialized and has a high per capita GNP..
developing country
has low to moderate industrialization and low to moderate per capita GNP. Most are located in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
doubling time
The time it takes (usually in years) for the quantity of something growing exponentially to double. It can be calculated by dividing the annual percentage growth rate into 70.
Ability of earth's various systems, including human cultural systems and economies, to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely. This is another name for sustainability.
ecological footprint
Amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply each person or population with the renewable resources they use and to absorb or dispose of the wastes from such resource use. It measures the average environmental impact of individuals or populations in different countries and areas.
scientist who studies relationships between living organisms and their environment.
Study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy; study of the structure and functions of nature.
economic development
Improvement of living standards by economic growth. Compare economic growth, environmentally sustainable economic development.
economic growth
Increase in the capacity to provide people with goods and services produced by an economy; an increase in gross domestic product (GDP).
All external conditions and factors, living and nonliving (chemicals and energy), that affect an organism or other specified system during its lifetime.
environmental degradation
Depletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource such as soil, grassland, forest, or wildlife that is used faster than it is naturally replenished.
environmental ethics
How people think the world works, what they think their role in the world should be, and what they believe is right and wrong environmental behavior
environmental ethics
Human beliefs about what is right or wrong environmental behavior.
environmental movement
Efforts by citizens at the grassroots level to demand that political leaders enact laws and develop policies to curtail pollution, clean up polluted environments, and protect pristine areas and species from environmental degradation.
environmental revolution
Cultural change involving halting population growth and altering lifestyles, political and economic systems, and the way we treat the environment so that we can help sustain the earth for ourselves and other species.
environmental scientist
who uses information from the physical sciences and social sciences to understand how the earth works, learns how humans interact with the earth, and develop solutions to environmental problems.
A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth's life support systems for us and other species.
who is concerned about the impact of people on environmental quality and believe that some human actions are degrading parts of the earth's life-support systems for humans and many other forms of life..
environmentally sustainable economic development
encourages forms of economic growth that meet the basic needs of the current generations of humans and other species without preventing future generations of humans and other species from meeting their basic needs and discourages environmentally harmful and unsustainable forms of economic growth.
environmentally sustainable society
satisfies the basic needs of its people without depleting or degrading its natural resources and thereby preventing current and future generations of humans and other species from meeting their basic needs.
responsible for managing federal efforts to control air and water pollution, radiation and pesticide hazards, environmental research, hazardous waste, and solid-solid waste disposal.
exponential growth
in which some quantity, such as population size or economic output, increases at a constant rate per unit of time. An example is the growth sequence 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and so on; when the increase in quantity over time is plotted, this type of growth yields a curve shaped like the letter J.
free-access resource
common-property resource.
frontier environmental view
Viewing undeveloped land as a hostile wilderness to be conquered (cleared, planted) and exploited for its resources as quickly as possible..
Broad process of global social, economic, and environmental change that leads to an increasingly integrated world. See information and globalization revolution.
gross domestic product (GDP)
Annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country.
human-centered environmental views
Humans are the planet's most important species and should
People who get their food by gathering edible wild plants and other materials and by hunting wild animals and fish.
Industrial/medical revolution
Use of new sources of energy from fossil fuels and later from nuclear fuels, and use of new technologies, to grow food and manufacture products.
information and globalization revolution
Use of new technologies such as the telephone, radio, television, computers, the Internet, automated databases, and remote sensing satellites to enable people to have increasingly rapid access to much more information on a global scale.
multiple use
Use of an ecosystem such as a forest for a variety of purposes such as timber harvesting, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreation.
nonpoint source
Large or dispersed land areas such as crop fields, streets, and lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area..
nonrenewable resource
Resource that exists in a fixed amount (stock) in various places in the earth's crust and has the potential for renewal by geological, physical, and chemical processes taking place over hundreds of millions to billions of years. Examples are copper, aluminum, coal, and oil.
per capita ecological footprint
Amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply each person or population with the renewable resources they use and to absorb or dispose of the wastes from such resource use. It measures the average environmental impact of individuals or populations in different countries and areas.
perpetual resource
An essentially inexhaustible resource on a human time scale. Solar energy is an example.
point source
Single identifiable source that discharges pollutants into the environment. Examples are the smokestack of a power plant or an industrial plant, drainpipe of a meatpacking plant, chimney of a house, or exhaust pipe of an automobile.
A particular chemical or form of energy that can adversely affect the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms.
pollution cleanup
Device or process that removes or reduces the level of a pollutant after it has been produced or has entered the environment. Examples are automobile emission control devices and sewage treatment plants.
pollution prevention
Device or process that prevents a potential pollutant from forming or entering the environment or sharply reduces the amount entering the environment.
An undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, water, soil, or food that can adversely affect the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms.
Unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers in the United States and other developed countries.
Ecology (study)
of connections in the natural world
Ecology (helps)
us understand the environment around us
Try to understand interactions among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere
Biological Levels of Organization
Molecules, cells, groups of cells, organs/tissues, organisms, populations, community, ecosystem, biosphere
nonliving (air, water, nutrients, solar energy)
(nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium)
Nitrogen (chemical formula)
Nitrogen (%)
78 of the air is made of this
living plants, animals, and microbes
Primary level
Herbivores and other consumers
Secondary level
Secondary consumers
thin membrane of air
first 11 miles above sea level
Stratosphere location
above troposphere between 11-30 miles.
Stratosphere (function)
Filters out the suns harmful UV radiation.
Stratosphere chemicals
Contains ozone (O3) and greenhouse effect (CO2) in the lower portion
all the earth's water, liquid, ice, and water vapor. Driven by gravity- against gravity evaporation and transpiration work
circular flow materials through living things
cant be recycled-
Energy as heat
is constantly leaving the systems
Making sugar
Biomass measured by
NPP net primary productivity
Burning or consuming oxygen and releasing CO2
What we see or eat from the plants
Solar energy
warms the atmosphere, evaporates and recycles water, generates winds, and supports plant growth
sends visible light to the earth the bounces off the earth as heat greenhouse effect traps the heat (climate crisis)
Solar energy
absorbed by the ozone
Ultraviolet radiation
Ultraviolet radiation
hits the earth which can damage animals or plants
provides us with: natural resources (food, water, wood, energy, medicines
Biodiversity provides us with
natural services (air and water purification, soil fertility, waste disposal, pest control) and esthetic pleasure
habitat destruction and degradation
invasive species
human population problem
over exploitation
climate change
Show how eaters, the eaten,
Food Chains
A food chain
starts with the primary energy source,
eat plants
primary consumers
are herbivores
secondary consumers
are carnivores- eat animals
shows flow of energy
food web
shows what receives the energy/food.
make their own food (ex: green plants and algae) producer
: can convert simple compounds to more complex compounds without sunlight.
Make sugar from H2S not water and air
feed on other organisms or their remains
break down organic detritus (bacteria)
feed on both plants and animals
feed on dead organic matter
start energy system
recycle nutrients in ecosystems (EX: mushrooms and bacteria)
insects or other scavengers that feed on wastes or dead bodies
limiting nutrient
minimized the rate of growth of plants
Limiting factor in water systems
NPK (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus)
excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, algae grows
causes a dense growth algae and death of animal life due to a lack of oxygen. To much NPK in a river.
no oxygen in a lake or river or ocean
kills off the fish if it get out of hand
oxygen deficiency water (biotic) environment because of over
Antarctica oceans
are limited to nutrients so when add nutrients there is an explosion of animals
biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
Biomes: ex
large community of distinctive plant and animal species determined by global climate zones (temperature, precipitation, altitude, and sunlight) EX: forest, tundra, grassland biomes
Has multiple ecosystems
can be a limiting factor in Illinois in biomes
group of similar organisms
the range of environmental conditions that determine whether and organism can live in an area
Water + CO2
=glucose sugar to grow/ photosynthesis
The rain
hits the ground, either runs into streams or flows into the ground,
water ends up
in the oceans via rivers or surface runoff,
not a single pest control method but, rather, a series of pest management evaluations, decisions and controls. It often uses physical means to reduce pests
IPM programs work
to monitor for pests and identify them accurately, so that appropriate control decisions can be made in conjunction with action thresholds