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AP ES Exam review part #2
Weilands environmental science review for AP Exam
Terms in this set (111)
depletion of the population of a wild species used as a resource to a level at which it is no longer profitable to harvest the species.
Coral Reefs: contain
the greatest marine biodiversity.
are dominated by mangrove trees and are a major reproductive area for marine animals AND found on the coastlines in warm tropical climates. They
Tragedy of the commons:
depletion or degradation of a potentially renewable resource to which people have free and unmanaged access. An example is the depletion of commercially desirable fish species in the open ocean beyond areas controlled by coastal countries.
Florida's everglades restoration project
involves trying to undo some of the damage inflicted on Florida's everglades by human activities. A lot of the original Everglades have been drained, diverted, paved over, ravaged by nutrient pollution from agriculture, and invaded by a number of plant species. Much of its biodiversity has been lost because of reduced water flows, invasive species, and habitat loss and fragmentation from urbanization.
Everglades has been a
nutrient-poor aquatic system, with low phosphorus levels. But runoff of phosphorus from fertilizers has greatly increased phosphorus levels.
is a natural pesticide obtained from the heads of chrysanthemum flower.
extracted from the roots of various tropical forest legumes. These first-generation pesticides were mainly natural chemicals or botanical borrowed from plants that have been defending themselves against insects eating them and herbivores grazing on them.
we can produce food more sustainably by reducing resource throughputs and working with nature. A method of growing crops and raising livestock based on organic fertilizers, soil conservation, water conservation, biological pest control, and minimal use of nonrenewable fossil-fuel energy.
popular term for the introduction of scientifically bred or selected varieties of grain (rice, wheat, corn) that, with adequate inputs of fertilizer and water, can greatly increase crop yields.
Irrigation is the
biggest user of water (70%), followed by industries (20%) and cites and residences (10%). The salt build up from fertilizers used in farming is coming from the irrigation. ??
Conservation-tillage farming (minimum):
crop cultivation in which the soil is disturbed little or not at all in an effort to reduce soil erosion, lower labor costs, and save energy.
cultivation of a single crop, usually in a large area of land.
usually include highly productive wetlands, help provide natural flood and erosion control, maintain high water quality, and recharge groundwater. Do not remove water-absorbing vegetation and do not drain or build on wetlands. We can reduce flooding risks by controlling river water flows, protecting mountainside forests, preserving and restoring wetlands, identifying and managing flood-prone areas, and, if possible, choosing not to live in such areas.
`Have so many dams and withdrawals that it often does not reach the ocean.
China's three gorges dam:
the world's largest dam and reservoir will outweigh its disadvantages. The dam will create a ton of power, however, it will displace over 1.2million people from the area to be flooded.
The California water project:
a massive transfer of water from water-rich northern California to water-poor southern California has brought many benefits, but remains controversial.
The Aral Sea disaster:
diverting water from the Aral Sea and its two feeder rivers mostly for irrigation has created a major ecological, economic, and health disaster.
has experienced increased flooding because of upstream deforestation of Himalayan mountain slopes and the clearing of mangrove forests on its coastal floodplains.
found at plate boundaries
Earthquakes and volcanoes are likely to be. Colliding plates create tremendous pressures in the earth's crust that are released by earthquakes.
Divergent plate boundary:
area where the earth's lithospheric plates move apart in opposite directions.
Convergent plate boundary:
area where the earth's lithospheric plates are pushed together.
area where the earth's lithospheric plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fracture (fault) in the lithosphere.
area in which oceanic lithosphere is carried downward under an island arc or continent at a convergent plate boundary. A trench ordinarily forms at the boundary between the two converging plates.
forms below or on the earth's surface when molten rock (magma) wells up from the earth's upper mantle or deep crust, cools, and hardens. Examples are granite and lava rock. Igneous rocks form the bulk of the earth's crust.
forms from sediment produced when existing rocks are weathered and eroded into small pieces, then transported by water, wind, or gravity to downstream, downwind, or downhill sites. A combination of pressure and dissolved minerals seeping through the layers of sediment crystallizes and binds sediment particles together to form the sedimentary rock.
forms when preexisting rock is subjected to high temperatures, high pressures, chemically active fluids, or a combination of these agents.
process in which various chemicals in upper layers of soil are dissolved and carried to lower layers and, in some cases, to groundwater.
rock and other waste materials removed as impurities when waste mineral material is separated from the metal in an ore.
unwanted rock and other waste materials produced when a material is removed from the earth's surface or subsurface by mining, dredging, quarrying, and excavation.
is how long it takes to use up a certain proportion- usually 80% of the reserves of a mineral at a given rate of use. Finding and extracting the remaining 20% usually costs more than it is worth.
form of surface mining in which bulldozers, power shovels, or stripping wheels remove large chunks of the earth's surface in strips.
types of surface mining that uses explosives, massive shovels, and even large machinery called draglines to remove the top of a mountain to expose seams of coal underneath a mountain.
: removing minerals such as gravel, sand, and metal ores by digging them out of the earth's surface, and leaving an open pit behind.
outer shell of the earth, composed of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle outside the asthenosphere; material found in the earth's plates.
total amount of useful energy available from an energy resource or energy system over its lifetime, minus the amount of energy used (the first energy law), automatically wasted (the second energy law), and unnecessarily wasted in finding, processing, concentrating, and transporting it to users.
is a thick and gooey liquid consisting of hundreds of combustible hydrocarbons along with small amounts of sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen impurities. Crude oil and natural gas often are trapped together under a dome deep within the earth's crust on land or under the seafloor. Heavy crude oil is too difficult or expensive to recover. After it is extracted, crude oil is transported to a refinery by pipeline, and there it is heated and distilled to separate it into components with different boiling points. Based on boiling points, components are removed at various levels in a giant distillation column. The most volatile components with the lowest boiling points are removed at the top of the column.
fine-grained rock containing various amounts of kerogen, a solid, waxy mixture of hydrocarbon compounds. Heating the rock to high temperatures converts the kerogen into a vapor that can be condensed to form slow-flowing, heavy oil called shale oil.
slow-flowing, dark brown, heavy oil obtained when kerogen in oil shale is vaporized at high temperatures and then condensed. Shale oil can be refined to yield gasoline, heating oil, and other petroleum products.
is a mixture of gases, of which 50-90% is methane (CH4), but it also contains ethane, propane, and butane and small amounts of highly toxic hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas does release carbon dioxide into the troposphere. However, it releases much less CO2 per unit of energy than burning oil, oil sand, or coal. Natural gas is a versatile and clean-burning fuel, but it releases the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane into the troposphere. Natural gas has a high net energy yield, low cost, less air pollution than other fossil fuels, easily transported by pipeline, good fuel for fuel cells and gas turbines.
controlled nuclear fission,
When isotopes of uranium and plutonium undergo fission the resulting heat produces steam that spins turbines to generate electricity.
puts particles together,
splits them up. .
from more than 1,400 pathogens that can infect humans.
from harmful chemical in air, water, soil and food.
such as a fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption, flood, tornado, and hurricane.
: such as smoking, unsafe working conditions, poor diet, drugs, drinking, driving, criminal assault, unsafe se, and poverty.
Infectious or transmissible disease:
disease that is caused by living organisms (such as bacteria, viruses, and parasitic worms) and can spread from one person to another by air, water, food, or body fluids (or in some cases by insects or other organisms). Flu ( viruses) 3.2 million deaths per year, HIV.AIDS(virus) 3.0 million deaths per year, Hepatitis B (virus) 1 million deaths per year.
consists of specialized cells and tissues that protect the body against disease and harmful substance by forming antibodies that make invading agents harmless.
chemicals that can harm the human nervous system. They can be either natural or synthetic chemicals in the environment. The endocrine system is a complex network of glands that releases minute amounts of hormones into the bloodstream of human and other vertebrate animals.
Hormonally active agents (HAAs) or hormone mimics:
can disrupt the endocrine system. This could impair reproductive systems and sexual development, and cause physical and behavioral disorders.
disrupt the endocrine system by preventing natural hormones such as androgens (male sex hormones) from attaching to their receptors.
estrogen mimics and hormone blockers can also be called gender benders because of their possible effects on sexual development and reproduction.
can cause growth, weight, brain and behavioral disorders.
is a measure of how harmful a substance is in causing, injury, illness or death to a living organism. Toxicity depends on several factors one is the dose- the amount of a substances a person has ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin.
poison or toxin
is a chemical that adversely affects the health of a human or animal by causing injury, illness, or death.
: are chemicals or forms of radiation that cause or increase the frequency of mutations, or changes in the DNA molecules found in cells. Some examples are nitrous acid, formed by the digestion of nitrite preservatives in foods.
are chemical that cause harm or birth defects to a fetus or embryo. Some examples of teratogens are arsenic, benzene, chlorine, chloroform, DDT, lead, mercury, PCBs.
are chemical or types of radiation that can cause or promote cancer. Some examples are vinyl chloride, chromium, PCBs, and various chemicals in tobacco.
increase in concentration of DDT, PCBs and other slowly degradable, fat-soluble chemicals in organisms at successively higher trophic levels of a food chain or web. Organisms at low trophic levels might ingest only small amounts of a toxin, but each animal on the next trophic level up that eats many of those organisms will take in increasingly larger amounts of that toxin.
in which some molecules are absorbed and stored in specific organs or tissues a higher than normal levels. A chemical found at fairly low concentration in the environment can build up to a harmful level in certain organs and tissues.
many chemicals such as DDT, are used precisely because of their persistence or resistance to breakdown But this persistence also means they have a long-lasting harmful effects on the health of wildlife and people.
is an immediate or rapid harmful reaction to an exposure-ranging from dizziness to death.
is a permanent or long-lasting consequence from exposure to a single dose or to repeated lower doses of a harmful substance.
Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS):
sensitive to a number of toxins.
can reduce harmful effects to a person's body.
multiplies harmful effects.
involves identifying hazards and evaluating their associated risks, ranking risks, determine options and making decisions about reducing or eliminating risks and informing decision makers and the public about risks.
process of gathering data and making assumptions to estimate short and long term harmful effects on human health or the environment from exposure to hazards associated with the use of a particular product or technology.
the atmosphere's innermost layer is made up of mostly of nitrogen and oxygen, will smaller amounts of water vapor and carbon dioxide. About 75-80% of the earth's air mass is found in the troposphere, it is the closest layer to the earth's surface-11 miles above sea level. Involved in the chemical cycling or many of the earth's vital nutrients. This thin and turbulent layer of rising and falling air currents and winds is also largely responsible for the planet's short-term weather and long-term climate.
ozone in the atmosphere's second layer filters out most of the sun's UV radiation that is harmful to us and most other species. Extends 11-30 miles above sea level, contains less matter than the troposphere, its volume of water vapor and concentration of ozone is much higher. Within the stratosphere is the
found 11-19 miles about sea level, keeps about 95% of the sun's harmful UV radiation from reaching the earth's surface.
Carbon Monoxide: is a colorless, odorless and highly toxic gas that forms during incomplete combustion of carbon-containing materials. Carbon Dioxide: is a colorless, odorless gas. About 93% of the CO2 in the troposphere is the result of the natural carbon cycle. The remaining 7% comes from human activities.
Nitrogen oxides and nitric acid:
Nitrogen oxide: is a colorless gas that forms when nitrogen and oxygen gas is air react at the high-combustion temperatures in automobile energies and coal-burning plants. They can suppress plant growth and reduce visibility when they are converted to nitric acid and nitrate salts.
Sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid:
Sulfur dioxide: is a colorless gas with an irritating odor. About 1/3 of the SO2 in the troposphere comes from natural resources as part of the sulfur cycle. The other 2/3 comes from human activities.
damaging chemicals can react with and oxidize certain compounds in the atmosphere or inside your lungs.
originally a combination of smoke and fog but now used to describe other mixtures of pollutants in the atmosphere.
type of air pollution consisting mostly of a mixture of sulfur dioxide, suspended droplets of sulfuric acid formed from some of the sulfur dioxide, and suspended solid particles.
: complex mixture of air pollutants produced in the lower atmosphere by the reaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides under the influence of sunlight. Especially harmful components include ozone, peroxyayl nitrates, and various aldehydes.
a layer of warm air can lie atop a layer of cooler air nearer to the ground. Because the cooler air is denser than the warmer air about it the air near the surface does not rise and mix with the air above it. One area is a town or a city located in a valley surround by mountains that experiences cloudy and cold weather during part of the year Another type of area vulnerable to temperature inversion is a city with several million people and motor vehicles in an area with a sunny climate, light winds, and mountains on three sides, and a ocean on the other side.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs):
organic compounds that exist as gases in the air. Most are hydrocarbons.
Particulates-Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM):
solid particles and liquid droplets small and light enough to remain suspended in the air for short to long periods.
Acid Rain or Acid Deposition:
falls of acid and acid-forming compounds from the atmosphere to the earth's surface. Acid deposition is commonly known as acid rain, a term that refers to the wet deposition of droplets of acids and acid-forming compounds. Acid deposition can cause or worsen respiratory disease, attack metallic and stone objects, decrease atmospheric visibility, kill fish, deplete soils of vital plant nutrients, and harm crops and plants. Acid deposition also harms aquatic systems Most fish cannot survive in water with a pH less than 4.5. Acid deposition can also release aluminum ions attached to minerals in nearby soil into lakes. These ions asphyxiate many kinds of fish by stimulating excessive mucus formation, which clogs their gills.
Indoor air pollution
usually is a much greater threat to human health than outdoor air pollution. The four most dangerous indoor air pollutants in developed countries are tobacco smoke, formaldehyde found in a variety of building materials and household products, radioactive radon-222 gas that can seep into houses from underground rock deposits, and very small fine and ultra fine particles.
The Clean Air Act of 1970,
which established air pollution regulation for key pollutants that are enforced by states and major cities. The EPA established national ambient air quality standards for six outdoor criteria pollutants. They set limits, primary standard- is set to protect human health; and secondary standard- is intended to prevent environmental and property damage.
a radioactive gas found in some soil and rocks, can seep into some houses and increase the risk of lung cancer. It is a colorless, odorless radioactive gas that is produced by the natural radioactive decay of uranium-238 in rocks and soils. When radon gas from such deposits seeps upward through the soil and it released outdoors, it disperses quickly in the air and decays to harmless levels. However, in building above such deposits radon gas can enter through cracks in foundations and walls, openings around sump pumps and drains, and hollow concrete blocks.
comes from building materials, furniture, drapes, upholstery, adhesives in carpeting and wallpaper and urethane-formaldehyde foam insulation. It is a threat because it irritates eyes, throat, skin, and lungs; can cause nausea or dizziness.
The four natural greenhouse gases
in the troposphere are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). There have been significant increases in the troposphere concentration of three greenhouse gases- carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. These increases result mostly from burning fossil fuels, clearing and burning forests, and planting rice and using inorganic fertilizers.
went into effect in January 2005 with 189 countries. It requires 38 participating developed countries to cut their emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide to an average of at least 5.2% below their 1990 levels by 2012.
layer of ozone
in the lower stratosphere keeps about 95% of the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth's surface.
chemically unreactive, odorless, nonflammable, nontoxic, and noncorrosive, these compounds seemed to be dream chemicals. CFC's were lowering the average concentration of the ozone in the stratosphere. CFC's remain in the troposphere because they are insoluble in water and chemically unreacted. Over 11-20 years these heavier-than-air compounds rise into the stratosphere mostly through convection, random drift, and the turbulent mixing of air in the troposphere. CFC molecules break down under the influence of high-energy UV radiation. This releases highly reactive chlorine atoms, as well as atoms, of fluorine and bromine from other related compounds. Which then break down the ozone layer.
Ozone-depleting compounds (ODCs):
such as CFCs, halons and hydrobromoflurocarbons, methyl bromide, hydrogen chloride, and cleaning solvents such as carbon tetrachloride.
Global warming and ocean currents
and cause excessive warming in some parts of the world and severe cooling in other areas. These current act like a gigantic conveyor belt, moving CO2 and heat to and from the deep sea, and transferring hot and cold water between the tropics and the poles. Global warming can lead to significant global cooling some parts of the world. However, a warmer troposphere can decrease the ability of the ocean to remove and store carbon dioxide by decreasing the nutrient supply for phytoplankton and increasing the acidity of ocean water.
measuring the number of colonies of fecal coliform bacteria present in a sample of water. Most strains of coliform bacteria do not cause disease; their presence indicates that water has been exposed to human or animal wastes that are likely to contain disease-causing agents. To be considered safe for drinking a sample of water should contain no coliform bacteria.
Level of dissolved oxygen (DO):
shows the excessive inputs of oxygen-demanding wastes, shows the relationship between dissolved oxygen content and water quality.
are scattered and diffuse and cannot be traced to any single sit of discharge. Water pollution is larger and more dispersed.
overnourishment of aquatic ecosystems with plant nutrients (mostly nitrates and phosphates) because of human activities such as agriculture, urbanization, and discharges from industrial plants and sewage treatment plants.
Hazardous waste disposal
Deep underground wells are a safe method if sites are chosen carefully, wastes can be retrieved if problem develop, easy to do, and low cost. However, leaks or spills at surface, leaks from corrosion of well casing, existing fractures or earthquakes can allow wastes to escape into groundwater, encourages waste production.
household sewage and wastewater is pumped into a settling tank, where grease and oil rise to the top and solids fall to the bottom and are decomposed by bacteria. The resulting partially treated wastewater is discharged in a large drainage field through small holes in perforated pipes embedded in porous gravel or crushed stone just below the soil's surface.
Primary sewage treatment:
a physical process that uses screens and a grit tank to remove large floating objects and allow solids such as sand and rock to settle out. Then the waste stream flows into a primary settling tank where suspended organic solids settle out as sludge. Primary treatment removes 60% of the suspended solids and 30-40% of the oxygen-demanding organic wastes from sewage.
Secondary sewage treatment:
a biological process in which aerobic bacteria remove as much as 90% of dissolved and biodegradable, oxygen-demanding organic wastes.
Tertiary sewage treatment:
uses a series of specialized chemical and physical processes to remove specific pollutants left in the water after primary and secondary treatment.
can be used as a soil conditioner but this can cause health problems if it contains infectious bacteria and toxic chemicals.
city with 10 million or more people.
one or more chemicals in high enough concentrations in the air to harm humans, other animals, vegetation, or materials. Excess heat and noise are also con
any unwanted, disturbing, or harmful sound that impairs or interferes with hearing, causes stress, hampers concentration and work efficiency, or causes accidents.
the environmental movement.
when people start thinking about the cost of making the world green.
have little precipitation and little vegetation and are found in tropical, temperate, and Polar Regions. Where evaporation exceeds precipitation. Deserts cover about 30% of the earth's land surface and are found mostly in tropical and subtropical regions.
Sahara and Namib of Africa, they are hot and dry most of the year. They have a few plants and a hard, windblown surface strewn with rocks and some sand.
Mojave, daytime temperatures are high in the summer and low in the winter and there is more precipitation that in tropical desert.