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AP Human Geography: Unit 2
Population and Migration Patterns and Processes
Terms in this set (78)
all the inhabitants of a particular town, area, or country.
the movement of humans from one place to another.
Net migration from urban to rural areas
Common migration patterns in developed, and developing countries
Developed- city to urban migration
Developing- rural to urban migration
Characteristics of Migrants
most are searching for work opportunities, most are young adults, some are forced to emigrate because of environmental, political, or economic factors.
laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
worker who migrated to the developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of a higher-paying job.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
The temporary movement of a migrant worker between home and host countries to seek employment.
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
What are the patterns that effect where and how people live?
cultural, political, and economic patterns
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
A technique used to find the official count of a population
The Four Population Clusters
East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Southeast Asia.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
What are the factors that influence the distribution of human populations?
physical factors, and human factors.
geography, environment, community size, industrial development
culture, economics, history, and politics
scale of analysis
The way in which areas of the world are grouped together for study
Four Most Sparsely Populated Regions
Dry lands, wet lands, cold lands, and high lands
areas too dry for farming take up 20% of land surface
Lands that receive very high levels of precipitation, located primarily near the equator, are often inhospitable for human occupation
Covers the north and south poles in permafrost (permanent ice) unable to grow anything or sustain life
Steep and snow covered; unsuitable and uncomfortable altitudes
What are the methods geographers use to calculate population density?
arithmetic, physiological, agricultural
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
The number of people per area of a certain type of land in a region: the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
How does population distribution and density affect society?
It affects political, economic, and social processes, including the provision of services such as medical care.
How does population distribution and density affect the environment?
It affects the environment and natural resources; this is known as carrying capacity
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
(NIR) Natural Increase Rate
The percentage by which a population grows in a year
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
(CBR) Crude Birth Rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
(CDR) Crude Death Rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
(ZPG) Zero Population Growth
When the CBR declines to the point where it equals the CDR and the NIR approaches zero
(TFR) Total Fertility Rate
The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
What are elements of population composition used by geographers?
Patterns of age structure and sex ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
What are ways that geographers depict and analyze population composition?
Population pyramids are used to assess population growth and decline and to predict markets for goods and services.
A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex
What are some factors that account for contemporary and historical trends in population growth and decline.
Changes in population are due to mortality, fertility, and migration, which are influenced by the interplay of environmental, economic, cultural, and political factors
Demographic factors of population change
Demographic factors that determine a population's growth and decline are fertility, mortality, and migration.
Natural increase factors of population change
Geographers use the rate of natural increase and population-doubling time to explain population growth and decline.
Other factors of population change
Social, cultural, political, and economic factors influence fertility, mortality, and migration rates.
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Four Stages of Demographic Transition Theory
Stage 1: Slow growth because of very high birth and death rates
Stage 2: Rapid growth because death rate drops, but birth rate remains high
Stage 3: Slow growth because birth rate drops to approach death rate
Stage 4: Zero population growth (ZPG)
The number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years.
Maternal Mortality Rate
Annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births.
(IMR) Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Elderly Support Ratio
The number of working-age people (ages 15 to 64) divided by the number of persons 65 and older.
What are the main theories of population growth and decline.
Demographic transition model (explains population change over time), epidemiological transition (explains causes of changing death rates), and the Malthusian theory (theory of population outgrowing resources).
The theory that population grows faster than food supply. It's used to analyze population change and its consequences.
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Four Stages of the Epidemiologic Transition
Pestilence and famine, receding pandemics, degenerative diseases, delayed degenerative diseases.
Explain the intent and effects of various population and immigration policies
Some population policies include those that promote or discourage population growth, such as pronatalist, antinatalist, and immigration policies.
How does the changing role of females has demographic consequences in different parts of the world? (social)
Changing social values and access to education, employment, health care, and contraception have reduced fertility rates in most parts of the world.
How does the changing role of females has demographic consequences in different parts of the world? (economic)
Changing social, economic, and political roles for females have influenced patterns of fertility, mortality, and migration, as illustrated by Ravenstein's laws of migration.
What are causes and consequences of an aging population?
An aging population has political, social, and economic consequences, including the dependency ratio.
Explain different causal factors that encourage migration
Push/pull factors and intervening opportunities/obstacles can be cultural, demographic, economic, environmental, or political.
types of forced migration
Forced migrations include slavery and events that produce refugees, internally
types of voluntary migration
Types of voluntary migrations include transnational, transhumance, internal, chain, step, guest worker, and rural-to-urban.
historical and contemporary geographic effects of migration.
Someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee
Permanent movement within a particular country.
Permanent movement from one country to another.
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
(IDP) Internally displaced person
someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders
A factor that draws or attracts people to another location
a factor that induces people to leave old residences
A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster
A person who enters a country without proper documents to do so
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
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