A look at the major concepts behind the term
Terms in this set (5)
a deficiency in precipitation over an
extended period, usually a season or more, resulting
in a water shortage causing adverse impacts on
vegetation, animals, and/or people. It is a normal,
recurrent feature of climate that occurs in virtually all
climate zones, from very wet to very dry. Drought is a
temporary aberration from normal climatic conditions,
thus it can vary significantly from one region to
defined usually on the basis of the degree of dryness (in comparison to some "normal" or average amount) and the duration of the dry period. Definitions of meteorological drought must be considered as region specific since the atmospheric conditions that result in deficiencies of precipitation are highly variable from region to region.
Agricultural drought links various characteristics of meteorological or hydrological drought to agricultural impacts, focusing on precipitation shortages, differences between actual and potential evapotranspiration, soil water deficits, reduced groundwater or reservoir levels, and so forth.
associated with the effects of periods of precipitation (including snowfall) shortfalls on surface or subsurface water supply (i.e., streamflow, reservoir and lake levels, groundwater). The frequency and severity of hydrological drought is often defined on a watershed or river basin scale. Although all droughts originate with a deficiency of precipitation, hydrologists are more concerned with how this deficiency plays out through the hydrologic system. Hydrological droughts are usually out of phase with or lag the occurrence of meteorological and agricultural droughts. It takes longer for precipitation deficiencies to show up in components of the hydrological system such as soil moisture, streamflow, and groundwater and reservoir levels.
associates the supply and demand of some economic good with elements of meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural drought. It differs from the other types of drought because its occurrence depends on the time and space processes of supply and demand to identify or classify droughts. The supply of many economic goods, such as water, forage, food grains, fish, and hydroelectric power, depends on weather.