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History 2020 Exam 2 Essays
Terms in this set (5)
The immigration between the late 19th century and early 20th was different from the earlier immigrants with a more diverse group of immigrants entering the U.S.
1. People that came included groups from Southern and Eastern Europe (Italians, Jews, Greeks, and Slavs), Middle East (Armenians) and Japanese from Asia.
2. The people came over to America with the vision of a better life in America in American cities. Some came to escape persecution, crop failure, violence or industrial depression.
3. An overwhelming majority of the immigrants settled in cities in the northeastern and north central states. Irish in New Zealand and Germans in the Midwest. Japanese usually settled in the Western portion. South Eastern was hardly settled by immigrants.
4. How did the immigrants fare? Immigrants of the same group usually clustered together with compatriots. Native Whites thought the immigrant groups as inferior. Immigrants of the same racial group would group up into the same neighborhood to gain support from one another. Some immigrants had it easier such as the Irish because of their population numbers influence. Most immigrants couldn't afford an apartment with one job so the whole family had to take up more than one. They often worked for little pay and lived in unsanitary slums which they often gained diseases from. Some Germans and Scandinavians fared by farming in the Midwest.
5. They allowed for a huge population increase. They increased the gap between the immigrant lower class and the Native Middle and Upper classes. They reshaped political and social institutions. They took up most of the low pay laborous jobs sustaining the economy.
1. The growing number of urban dwellers from migration and immigration created big problems for city governments because they were unable to provide favors. These conditions caused the emergence of the political boss. Whom political boss was meant to deal with chaotic change and growth. The boss presided over the cities machine. With the changing conditions, political bosses and machines were able to get more of a following. 2. The political machine was a unique contribution to the municipal government. The machine took control over the city government, it was designed to keep a certain political power in local office. Having direct control of city government officials. Controlling who was hired as police and fire departments. Punished rivals with controlling taxes, licenses, and inspections. Gave out tax breaks to allies in return for larger payoffs. The most important is that it had a strong influence on the election of city government officials. Bosses controlled a unit in the political party and dictates votes and political appointments. Acted as welfare agents towards the people. Wielded enormous influence in city government. 3. The groups that supported the political machine were Immigrants and lower income class because they provided jobs and services. Some of the cities powerful elite and journalist opposed the political machine because they felt like they were often corrupted and they offered the same background as the powerful elite.
There were varied responses from different middle-class reformers directed toward the working class.
Poverty: Middle-class leader sought comprehensive solutions to battling working class poverty. Jacob Riis believed that immigrants were poor because of the lack of self-discipline and unsanitary living conditions. Poverty relief workers targeted the young who were the most malleable. Protestant reformers started fabricating societies to help bring youths off the street. Robert M. Hartley organized associations for improving poor conditions. Charles Loring Brace created public reading rooms, dormitories, and shops. The YMCA created recreational events for boys. The Salvation Army
Crime: Purity Campaign. Anthony Comstock founded the New York Society for the suppression of Vice. Demanded that they close down gambling, lottery operations and censor obscene publications. Stood against prostitution because of immorality. Protestant Ministers developed the institutional church movement
1. The populist party (the 1890's)(Southern and Western Farmers and Silver miners) was a revolt against the Democratic and Republican party for ignoring the farmer's demands and problems for over a decade. Over that time farmers were suffering from constant crop failures, falling prices and poor marketing.
2. They wanted to replace the Democrats as the second greatest party. The party called for a more active role of the federal government. Supported a graduated income tax. Government ownership of railroads. The direct election of U.S Senators. Abolition of national banks and a sub-treasury. Free coinage silver
3. The populist party could not influence much of the urban cities. The populist ideas were too progressive. The discovery of more Gold in the west helped farmers in the region who had originally depended on the party. The populist party wasn't needed because of a better economy after 1896. The loss of the election of 1896. The populist party was also absorbed into the progressive movement.
4. No, the populist party did not achieve any of its goals. Many of their achievements are when they join the progressive movement.
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