112 terms

Reading Test Preparation

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Terms in this set (...)

Grapheme
Written representation of a unit of sound
Phoneme
Smallest unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another
Morpheme
Smallest unit of sound that holds meaning
Phonics
Relationship among letters of the alphabet and the sounds in spoken words
Alphabetic principle
The use of letters to represent sounds
Phonemic awareness
The ability to separate words into sounds and blend sounds into words
Onset
The single-letter consonant, consonant blend, or consonant digraph that begins a syllable. Smaller than syllables, larger than phonemes
Phonological awareness
Understanding that spoken language consists of words, syllables, rhymes and sounds, and ability to act on this understanding
Segmenting
Separating a large unit of spoken language into smaller units
Blending
Combining smaller units of language together to pronounce a larger unit
Word awareness
The ability to separate a sentence into words
Syllable awareness
The ability to separate words into syllables and blend syllables into words
Rhyme awareness
Being able to recognize or think of rhyming words
Beginning sound awareness
The ability to discern the beginning sound in a word
Rime
The vowel and consonant letter(s) that follow the vowel in a one-syllable word or a syllable
Phoneme addition
Children attach one or more phonemes to a word or word part
Phoneme deletion
Removing one or more phonemes from a word
Phoneme substitution
Removing one or more phonemes from a word and replacing them with one or more different phonemes
Syntax
The logical or grammatical form of sentences
Semantics
The content or meaning of sentences
Homograph
Same spelling, different meaning
Homonym
Same spelling, different meaning, same sound
Homophone
Different meaning, same sound
Orthographic awareness
The ability to perceive and recall letter strings and word forms, as well as the retrieval of letters and words
Prosody
Concerns versification of text and involves such matters as which syllable of a word is accented
Graphophonic Relationship
The relationship between letters and sounds in a word
Predicate
Made up of the verb and any other adverbs, adjectives, pronouns or clauses that describe the action of the sentence
Explicit Approach
Teacher models and demonstrates; first step in instruction
Implicit approach
Reinforcement of a previously taught skill; for extension and practice
Phoneme Isolation
Recognizing individual sounds in a word
Phoneme identify
Recognizing the same sound in different words
Phoneme categorization
Recognizing the word that does not fit with a group of three or four words because it has an "odd" sound
Phonics Cueing System
Figuring out the meaning of an unknown word based on ones orthographic knowledge of the sounds in the word and the letters that make those sounds
Semantics cueing system
Figuring out an unknown word based on what would make sense within the sentence d
Syntax Cueing system
Figuring out an unknown word based on the order of the words in the sentence and grammar rules
Cueing systems
Strategies that readers use to predict, confirm and self-correct when reading words that they do not already know with automaticity
Context clues
Comprised of both semantic and syntax clues
Consonant Digraph
Two consonant letters that together make a new sound. (Sh, ch, ph)
Consonant blend
Consonant pairs or clusters in which each sound is heard
laugh
A digraph makes me _______.
Bl
__end
Controlled vowels
When a vowel is followed by the letters r, l or w, it is neither long nor short. It is different!
Diphthong
A blend of vowel sounds, in which each sound is still heard (oi, ou)
Synthetic phonics
Inductive approach, part to whole
Analytic phonics
Deductive approach, whole to part
Schwa
A unstressed vowel sound which indicates the "uh" sound as in about and some.
Dolch words
Sight words regularly taught in schools
Base word
A simple word around which a family of words can be built
Root word
The origin of a word
Short (Closed syllable)
When a short word or syllable with one vowel letter ends in a consonant, the vowel sound is usually ______. (VC pattern; pin, cat)
Long (open syllable)
When a short word or syllable has only one vowel and it comes at the end of the word or syllable, the vowel is usually ______. (CV pattern; he, why)
Inflectional endings
Affixes added to the ends of words to indicate number or tense, without changing the word's part of speech
Consonant
To mark the short vowel, double the _________.
Semantic mapping
Visually displaying the relationship among words based on meaning
Literal comprehension
Reader can retell information that was stated directly in the passage
Inferential Comprehension
Reader understands what was implied but not directly stated in the passage
Evaluative Comprehension
The reader combines information from the text with their own life experiences to form judgement
Picture Walk
Pre reading activity in which the teacher asks the child to predict what the story is about by looking at the pictures before reading
Cloze Procedure
Students read a selection with missing words aloud, filling in the blanks with words they deem appropriate. An informal way of assessing a student's reading level.
Ongoing Reading Assessment
"Kid watching" making informal notes over time of a child's reading progress, noting areas that need additional instruction
Informal Reading Inventories
Students individually read a selection and then answer questions about the selection afterward. Assesses child's word recognition and comprehension skills
Portfolio Assessment
Periodically collecting samples of student's work to examine areas of need and growth over time
Validity
A test measures what it is intended to measure
Reliability
A test measures things consistently with multiple replications
Criterion referenced
Benchmarks and rubrics are associated with _______assessments.
Yopp Singer
Tests for phoneme segmentation abilities
Recursive learning
Learners may seem to regress to an earlier stage of mastery as they solidify understanding
Aligned materials
Student materials that reinforce previous instruction of a particular literacy skill
Free morpheme
A unit of meaning that can stand alone as a whole word
Bound morpheme
A unit of meaning that must be attached to a word to make sense
Chunked text
Text that has been broken into meaningful pieces for the purpose of allowing students to practice reading fluently
Decodable text
Text in which a high proportion of the words follow previously taught phonics rules
Expository Text
Reports factual information and the relationship among ideas. Often contains long or technical words that may be unfamiliar to students
Floss rule
Words with one syllable ending in f, l, or s usually end with the grapheme ff, ll, or ss
Derivational Morphemes
Change the part of speech of a base word
Inversion
Incorrectly flipping letters horizontally or vertically. Common for emergent writers
Language Experience Approach
Teaching reading by using the reader's own dictated language
Morphemic analysis
Adding morphemes to a base word and examining how that alters the word
Cumulative story
Also known as a pattern story. Story has many elements repeated until the climax; a predictable text
Phonogram
A succession of letters that represent the same phonological unit in different words, such as igh in flight, might, tight, sigh, and high.
Orthography
Writing system for recognizing language
Phonology
The speech-sound system
Pragmatics
Rules for social language use
Reading Fluency Prorating Formula
words read correctly x 60 / by the number of seconds = Reading Fluency Score
Scope and sequence
Provides a full perspective of the progression and depth of a literacy instruction program
C Q and X
Unnecessary letters of the alphabet
Etymology
Word and meaning origins
Comprehensive monitoring strategies
Strategies that students employ to help them pay attention to and retain the information they have read
Narrative text
Text that tells a story
Directed Reading and Thinking Activity
Teacher interrupts student at strategic points in a story and asks them to predict what will happen next. Later, the student will either support or debunk their predictions.
Reciprocal Teaching
Dialogue between teacher and students, wherein each member of the dialogue responds to the other
Transactional Strategy Instruction
1) planning and setting reading goals
2) activating schemata
3) self-monitoring
4) solving encountered problems
5) self-evaluation
Question Answer Relationship
Giving students questions about a text to answer while they are reading
Multi pass learning strategy
Students first read chapter title, then chapter intro, then end of chapter, then compose a summary statement before reading
Combined-text narrative
Tells a fantasy narrative, followed by informational text about the characters' real-life equivalents
Incidental Exposure
Incorporating unfamiliar but relevant vocabulary words in conversation before reading a text with those words
Definitional approach
Telling students the meaning of or a synonym for a word
Contextual Approach
Having students determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word based on its context in the story
Conceptual approach
Linking new vocabulary words with students' background knowledge
Oral vocabulary
Used when students listen to and produce speech
Print vocabulary
Used when students read or write
Receptive vocabulary
Used when students are listening or reading
Productive vocabulary
Used when students are speaking or writing
Word consciousness
The interest and awareness of words and their meanings; also the interest in learning and using new vocabulary words
Core supplemental and intervention programs
CSI maps
Long Vowel Digraph
A two letter grapheme that represents one vowel phoneme (ōō)
Syllable
Made up of one vowel phoneme
Short
When a word or syllable has two vowels, one of which is a final e, and the two vowels are separated by two consonants, the first vowel often represents its _____sound and the final e is silent. (VCCe pattern; chance, ridge)
Long
When a one syllable word or accented syllable contains two vowels, one of which is the final e, the first vowel usually represents its ____ sound, and the final e is silent. (vCe pattern; mice, bone)
Long
When two vowels appear together in a one syllable word or accented syllable, the first usually represents its ____ sound and the second is silent. (CVCC pattern; boat, street; rain)
Comparative suffix
Compares two things
Superlative suffix
Compares three or more things