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LIFE 102 Exam 2 Prep tool
Terms in this set (51)
The main goal of cellular respiration is to transfer electrons from glucose to oxygen and use the energy from this exergonic reaction for the synthase of ATP.
During aerobic cellular respiration, electrons travel "downhill" in which sequence?
Glucose--> NADH--> Electron transport chain-->O2
Mitochondria is also known a _____________ in a cell?
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
loss of electrons
gain of electrons
What does "OIL RIG" mean?
oxidation is loss, reduction is gain
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
citric acid cycle
Completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide.
electron transport chain
series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
The energy stored in a H+ gradient across a membrane
couples the redox reactions of the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis.
is a charged molecule & can't cross lipid bilayers
Proteins, carbohydrates, and fats can all provide energy for _________?
Complex carbohydrates are hydrolyzed to monosaccharides, which then enter into ____________?
Glucose is a ____saccharide?
Fats are broken down into glycerol and _____ _____?
carbs are considered to be a ____ energy source?
Proteins are broken down into amino acids. Proteins have lower energy content than glucose. Amino groups
are removed, and nitrogenous waste is excreted as ammonia (NH3). Enter respiration at glycolysis or citric acid cycle.
Glycerol is converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which enters into glycolysis. Fatty acids are broken down by beta-oxidation to 2- carbon molecules, which enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl-CoA.
Anabolic Pathways (Biosynthesis)
The body uses small molecules to build other
substances (fats, amino acids)
the output or product of a process regulates that very process
Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.
is the most common mechanism for control, regulating what the enzymes do.
Control of catabolism is based mainly on __________ ___ _______ __ _______ at strategic points in the catabolic pathway.
regulating the activity of enzymes
If ATP levels starts to go down while working out, we speed up cellular respiration in order to make ____ ___?
Respiration that does not require oxygen
_______ is a key intersection in catabolism?
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
Are humans solar powered?
major locations of photosynthesis?
the green pigment within chloroplasts
CO2 enters and O2 exits the leaf through microscopic pores called _______?
The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants
Chloroplasts also contain a dense interior fluid called _____?
What is the process of Tracking Atoms through Photosynthesis?
Light + 6 CO2 + 12 H20 + C6 H12 06 + 6 02 + 6 H20
The Calvin Cycle
CO2 is "fixed" and reduced to sugars in the stroma.
The Light Reactions
Light energy is captured in the thylakoid membrane
The light reactions (in the thylakoids)
- Split H2O
-Reduce NADP + to NADPH
- Generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation
what is light energy?
radiation energy from the sun
Horizontal distance between the crests or between the troughs of two adjacent waves
Electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies
waves with higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths than UV light
Invisible radiation from the sun that cause sun tan, sun burn and skin cancer
non visible light and gives us heat
Radio waves with the shortest wavelengths and the highest frequencies
Electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies
particles of light
the process of light bouncing off a substance
absorption of light
absorbed wavelengths of pigment molecules
my shirt is green because the green wavelengths are being what?
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