61 terms

All of the WWI Terms!!

Elana and I made terms but these are all of them... together.
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united and he had the plan:
Keep Britian in splinded isolation
don't over expand
Make them your friends/ not enemies(1815-1898)
Wilhelm II
The leader of Germany during WWI who:
Fired Bismarck
Build the navy
show the rest of the world how powerful Germany had become.
Nicholas II
Russia's last tsar, he witnessed the fall of Russia from great power, to the entering into WWI and total collapse
Wanted to bring slavic people together
Austro-Hungry comander
Franz Ferdinand
archduke of Austria-Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand; his death was a cause for World War I
Serb who assassinated Franz Ferdinand (this helped lead the war b/t Austria and Serbia
German chief of staff whose hesitant strategy stalled the advance of the German army through France while executing the Schlieffen Plan
- controversial British Field Marshal who commanded the BEF (British Expeditionary Force) from 1914 to1918. Most famous for his Somme offensive = huge casualties. Also oversaw large losses at Ypres and Passchendaele. Historical opinion remains strongly divided over his role as a tactician.
French leader who united all Allied command; his axiom="To make war is to attack"
Commanded counteroffensive against Germans on the R. Marne.
A war hero, was elected to be german president when he was 84 and in poor health. the nazis took full advantage of his old age.
Wanted to bleed the French white. Chief of the General Staff of the German army from 1914 to 1916 who led the unsuccessful attack at Verdun
Great at Trench Warfare for Germans. Comander throughout the war
general in command of Rus Second Army, defeat at Battle of Tannenberg (against Germany), committed suicide that same day
Did not break up the American forces to support French and British. Kept American as own force
President of France Pro-nationalist. Representative for France at Paris Peace Conference. Determined to gain security for France against possible resurgence of German power. Also demanded substantial reparations from Germany to pay for reconstruction of war-ravaged northern France. One of Big Four and also representing a democratic system.
President of US who ran on the platform of keeping US out of the war, and ended up joining. created the 14 points and lead to the creation of the league of nations
British representative at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919
Premier of Italy and representing his country at Paris Peace Conference. Primary objective was to gain as much territory as possible for Italy. One of Big Four and also representing a democratic system.
Eugene Debs
he was sentenced for 10 years in prison for obstructing the draft of World War I (against the Espionage Act).
Head of the Committee on Public Information; sold the war to get ppl to buy bonds based off of war propaganda
replaced Nivelle and lead the French army at Verdun
Schlieffen Plan
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare. based on what if
Battle of the Marne
a World War I battle in northwestern France where the Allies defeated the Germans
French Foch
German Moltke
British French?
an indecisive naval battle in World War I (1916) fought between the British and German fleets off the northwestern coast of Denmark
In 1914 during World War I a German army under the command Hindenburg won an important victory over two Russian armies in the Second Battle of Tannenberg who had invaded East Prussia.
German Hindenburg
Russian Rennenkampf
A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.
Morocco Crisis of 1905
1905-1906, Germany resented France's increasing dominance of Morocco, and insisted on an open door policy. Tension of colony which built up tension for WW1.
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Willy-Nicky Telegraphs
A set of correspondence between Wilhem and Tsar Nikolas regarding the start of WW1 and Russia's role in the war
Shell Shock
The horrifying equivalent of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder for soldiers of WW1
Sussex Pledge
An agreement signed by Germany in 1915 to eliminate unrestricted submarine warfare and the destruction of passenger liners
French Mutiny
1917, soldiers in the western front refused to fight at the conclusion of the Second Battle of the Aisne
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
Treaty of Brest-Litvosk
Treaty between Russia and Germany; Russia withdraws from WWI
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
Fay Thesis
European nations share blame for WW1, it is not entirely the fault of Germany
Dual Alliance
Pact between Germany and Austria, each promising to come to the other's aid if attacked by Russia and to minimally remain neutral if the other was attacked by another country
Russo Japanese War
A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
Atrocities in Belgium
German war crimes in Belgium were extremely high, killing innocent civilians in cities and destroying towns in order to provoke Britatin to go to war
Trench Warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Zimmerman Note
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
Liberty Bonds
Small loans to the government that lent the government money over time. Total, the government raised $21 billion in liberty bonds.
Four Minute Men
Men sent on tour by Pres. Wilson to present four minute propaganda speeches to the public
Armenian Genocide
the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
English Three Emperors' League, an alliance in the latter part of the 19th century of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia, devised by German chancellor Otto von Bismarck. It aimed at neutralizing the rivalry between Germany's two neighbours by an agreement over their respective spheres of influence in the Balkans and at isolating Germany's enemy, France.
Black Hand
the Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand, part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary.
September Programme
plan drawn up by Germany when they thought they were winning calling for security in Reich, weaken France, Get russia away from Eastern frontier and away from Germans on her territory
Trench Foot
a painful foot disorder resembling frostbite and resulting from exposure to cold and wet, which can eventually result in tissue sloughing or gangrene; also called immersion
Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.
Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty
Food Administration
Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers
Russian Revolution
The coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922. The reason Russia withdrew from the war.
14 points
Woodrow Wilson's peace plan to end WWI. It calls for free trade; an end to secret pacts between nations; freedom of the seas; arms reduction; and the creation of a world organization - called the League of Nations
Fischer Thesis
Fischer suggests that Wilhelmine Germany desired and planned a general war.
in 10 mos. At Verdun, France, 700,000 men lost their lives over a few mile of land. WWI had turned into a war of attrition, a war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses.
A five-month offensive between July and November 1916 in the Somme river area in France. It began with a massive week-long British artillery barrage that proved futile, since the Germans just sheltered in their dug-outs until the shelling stopped, then machine-gunned waves of British troops who were crossing no-man's land. On the first day alone the British lost 60,000 men. The battle ended in a stalemate, after torrential rain turned the trenches into a quagmire. There were more than 650,000 casualties on both sides, and although British had relieved the French at Verdun, they had only advanced about five miles.
French go over top with 1 million men and suffer 720,000 casualties in two days. French in mutiny and ready to end war. Joffre is fired and Petain becomes leader of the army. Most are pardoned who refused orders.
British offensive in July 1917, known for its muddy conditions. More than 500,000 casualties, five miles of territory gained. United States tips scale of powers. Germany feels they must now take most aggressive troops possible.
2nd Battle of the Marne
Germans launched attack against France but they were stopped by French Morrocan and fresh American troops/basically end of the war for Germans