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Puberty - Exam 2
Terms in this set (16)
Kisspeptin plays an important role in activating the reproductive axis during pubertal development. _________ would delay puberty.
- Inactivating GPR54
- Administering exogenous Kisspeptin pre-puberty
- Permenently activating Kiss1P
Excess Leptin production
Leptin plays an important role in activating the reproductive axis during pubertal development. _______ would result in early puberty
- A leptin deficiency
- Excess Leptin production
If nutrients are plentiful (e.g. you've recently eaten a big meal), you would expect your cells to have more....
If nutrients are scarce (e.g. you haven't eaten for a long time or you've recently exercised), you would expect your body to have ______ circulating Leptin levels
If nutrients are scarce (e.g. you haven't eaten for a long time or you've recently exercised), you would expect mTOR activity to...
If nutrients are plentiful (e.g. you've recently eaten a big meal), you would expect AMPK activity to...
Transition period from sexually immature child to sexually mature, reproductively fertile adult
- Leptin signaling is mediated by mTOR in Kiss1 neurons
- Leptin stimulates mTOR in Kiss1 neurons
6) FKBP12 (Rapamycin)
7) Puberty Onset
Describe the proposed roles of mTOR and AMPK in
mediating the Leptin signal. Explain the roles of mTOR and AMPK as energy sensor
Tanner 2 is considered the onset of puberty
Women: Pubic Hair and Breasts
Men: Penis and Testicles
Indicate the significance of Tanner Stage 2 and
explain the major hallmarks for females and males.
1. Thelarche - onset of breast development
2. Pubarche - first appearance of pubic hair
3. Menarche - first menstruation
Define thelarche, pubarche and menarche. Know the order in which they occur relative to one another and relative to the start of the growth spurt and ovulation.
GnRH neurons lack leptin receptors
Leptin may play a key role on regulating Kiss1 neurons by...
- Secreted by adipose
- Levels in blood are proportional to fat mass
- Has permissive and stimulatory effect on kisspeptin signaling
Leptin inhibits AMPK
Describe the effect of Leptin on the Kiss1 system. Indicate the significance of
leptin receptors on the ARC Kiss1 neurons.
Reproduction is energetically demanding
Negative energy balance inhibits reproductive axis
Kiss1 neurons may relay metabolic information (energy stores, nutritional status) to reproductive axis
Describe the effect of negative energy balance on
Ovarian/Uterine weight increases
Describe the major changes in FSH, estradiol, ovarian weight and uterine weight during puberty
Prostate/Seminal Vesicle/Testicular weight increases
Describe the major changes in FSH, testosterone,
prostate weight, seminal vesicle weight and testicular weight during puberty.
- Pre-pubertal inhibition of GnRH secretion by low levels of testosterone/estrogen
- Sensitivity of the hypothalamus to negative feedback by testosterone/estrogen decreases at puberty
- Removal of inhibition results in increased GnRH secretion
- LH & FSH begin to increase first at night then throughout day as well
- Leads to increased testosterone production by testes and estrogen production by ovaries
Describe Gonadostat theory
Brain is initially sexually indifferent and becomes permanently "male" or "female" during perinatal period (around time of birth)
Perinatal T secreted by males directs brain sexual differentiation via AR or ER pathways
(after aromatization to E2 in neural target tissues) resulting in masculinization
Lack of circulating sex steroids in females results in feminization
Describe the "organizational hypothesis" and how it relates to masculinization or feminization of the
AVPN Kiss1 neurons during the "perinatal" period.
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