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Childhood & Adolescence Psych: Exam 2
Terms in this set (77)
On the A.P.G.A.R. Scale, what does the first A stand for?
On the A.P.G.A.R. Scale, what does the P stand for?
Pulse (heart rate)
On the A.P.G.A.R. Scale, what does the G stand for?
Grimace (reflex irritability)
On the A.P.G.A.R. Scale, what does the second A stand for?
Activity (muscle tone)
On the A.P.G.A.R. Scale, what does the R stand for?
Respiration (respiratory tone)
On the A.P.G.A.R. Scale, what group of numbers is considered "good"?
On the A.P.G.A.R. Scale, what group of numbers means that the baby needs to be monitored?
On the A.P.G.A.R. Scale, what group of numbers means that immediate intervention is needed?
3 and below
What is the average weight of a newborn?
By 5 months old, how much should the baby weigh?
15 lbs. (newborn weight doubles)
By 1 year old, how much should the baby weigh?
22 lbs. (newborn weight triples)
By 1 year old, how tall should the baby be?
What is the best recommendation to make sure babies sleep well?
Back-to-sleep guidelines: put the baby to sleep on their back
What is the rooting reflex?
Rubbing the baby's cheek triggers it to suck
What is the sucking reflex?
Put anything in a baby's mouth and they will suck on it
What is the Moro reflex?
When a baby feels like they are falling, they will widen their arms
What is the Babinski reflex?
Putting pressure on the baby's foot triggers it's toes to curl
What is the grasping reflex?
If you put anything in a baby's hand they will hold it
What are gross motor skills?
Coordinating movements associated with large muscles
What are fine motor skills?
Coordinating intricate movements associated with smaller muscles
What is cephalocaudal pattern?
Development occurs first at the head and last at the toes
What the proximodistal pattern?
Development occurs at areas closest to the trunk and last at areas furthest from the trunk
At 6 months old, what gross motor skill should babies be able to accomplish?
Sitting upright and moving by themselves
At 8-10 months old, what gross motor skill should babies be able to accomplish?
At 9 months old, what gross motor skill should babies be able to accomplish?
Walking with support
At 1 year old, what gross motor skill should babies be able to accomplish?
At 4 months old, what fine motor skill should babies be able to accomplish?
At 11 months old, what fine motor skill should babies be able to accomplish?
Picking up small objects
At 2 years old, what fine motor skill should babies be able to accomplish?
Drinking from a cup
How do researchers test infants visual acuity?
Preferential looking procedure
What are the four main visual preferences for babies?
3.) Human faces
4.) Mother's face
When are babies color vision mature?
6 months old
What is the background of Piaget's Theory?
- Child is active in their development
- Thinking is consistent within the stages
- Used clinical method (interview's w/ kids)
What is interpreting new experiences in terms of what we already know?
What is changing what we know to fit with experiences?
What is the stage from birth to 2 years where thought is based only on sensory input and physical actions?
What substage occurs from birth to 1 month and deals with simple reflexes
What substage occurs from 1 to 4 months and deals with repeating behaviors that center on the infant's own body?
Primary circular reactions
What substage occurs from 4 to 10 months and deals with repeating actions and the baby being interested in outcomes beyond its own body?
Secondary circular reactions
What substage occurs from 10 to 12 months and deals with the baby intentionally putting two actions together to reach a goal?
Coordination of secondary circular reactions
What substage occurs from 12 to 18 months and deals with the baby being interested in variation, not just repetition?
Tertiary circular reactions
What substage occurs from 18 to 24 months and deals with the baby moving from external actions to internal mind?
Beginnings of thought
In object permanence, a baby at 1 year old should be able to do what?
Retrieve completely hidden object but can't solve visible displacement (A-not-B error)
In object permanence, a baby at 18 months old should be able to do what?
Solve visible displacement but not invisible displacement (overcame A-not-B error)
In object permanence, a baby at 2 years old should be able to do what?
Solve invisible displacement
What language theory states that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning?
Learning theory approach
What language theory states that humans are genetically programmed with the innate ability to develop language?
What language theory states that language development is produced through a combination of genetically predispositions and environment circumstances that help teach language?
What type of speech leaves out words that are not critical to the message?
What type of speech uses words too broadly? (Ex: calling every animal a dog)
What type of speech is too restrictive with word use? (Ex: calling only the family pet a dog)
What type of language style is used to label objects?
What type of language style is used to express feelings and needs?
What is prelinguistic communication?
Communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, etc.
What is the average age babies say their first word and what do they normally say?
10-14 months old & nouns
How many words is a baby's first sentence and what do they normally say?
2 words & usually comments and observations
What are some characteristics of infant-directed speech?
- Short, simple sentences
- Higher pitch
- Increased range of frequencies
- More varies intonation
- Repetition if words
- Topics comprehensible by infants
What are patterns of emotionality and arousal that are consistent and enduring that refer to how children behave?
If a child is happy often, regular, adaptable, curious, and had moderate to low emotions they are ...
If a child is upset often, slow to adapt, and tends to withdraw they are ...
If a child is inactive, calm, generally in a negative mood, and withdraws but adapts slowly they are ...
What is the match between temperament and environment?
Goodness of fit
What is the positive, emotional bond that develops between a child and a specific person that provides comfort and a secure base?
What did Harry Harlow's research with monkeys find?
The most critical component in attachment formation is contact comfort
What is the strange situation procedure?
Looks at three things ...
1.) Parent/infant interactions with toys
2.) Brief separations from parents and interactions with strangers
3.) Reunion with parents
If a child freely explores, possibly shows distress upon reunion, and is comforted during the reunion they are ...
If a child has little interest in the parent, shows little distress at separation, and ignores the parent during the reunion they are ...
If a child does not explore freely, is very upset at separation, shows a mix of clinginess/resistive behaviors during reunion they are ...
If a child is inconsistent, contradictory, and shows confused behavior they are ...
If the parenting type is sensitive, responsive, and interaction synchrony, the child is most likely to be ...
If the parenting type is ignoring and rejecting, the child is most likely to be...
If the parenting type is inconsistent, the child is more likely to be ...
If the parenting type is abusive and neglecting, the child is more likely to be ...
Does daycare affect attachment?
Time spent in daycare adds to the risk of insecure attachment ONLY when it's combined with less sensitive and responsive mothering
What is the mirror-and-rouge technique?
When the infant is a not paying attention, someone puts a mark one their head and then shows them a mirror to see if they will wipe it away or not
What is the intentional search for information to help explain uncertain situations?
What is the still-face procedure?
Infants become upset when using social referencing and their parents show a blank, neutral expression
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