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Terms in this set (102)
Name a disability that might not be obvious to an observer
Dyslexia, hearing loss, seizure disorder
What is the medical model of disability?
The medical model of disability focuses solely on the biological aspects of disability.
What disability model says that disability is an issue with inaccessible environments rather than people ?
What's a weakness of the social identity model?
People might like this model because they feel excluded from society.
What's a pro of the functional solutions model?
It looks for helpful and realistic ways to solve problems
What is the charity model?
The idea that people with disabilities are the victims of unfortunate situations and deserve special treatment.
What is a pro of the medical model?
It's based on clearly defined factual information
What are the weaknesses of the medical model?
Very specific definitions can be an issue when some people don't fit into a box and might miss out on benefits or assistance that they need. It also overlooks the need for accessible environments because of its focus on the individual. And it can give a person an "other" label.
What's the social model?
The idea that disability is a function of how a person interacts with their environment. If things were designed in an accessible way, then a disability wouldn't be a barrier.
What's a pro of the social model?
It empowers people with a disability by putting the need for change on the environment instead of the person. It could indirectly influence designers and architects to create a more usable world.
What are weaknesses of the social model?
It can make a disability seem impersonal, and some people with disabilities feel like their disability is an important part of themself. It also de-emphasizes the reality that people with disabilities can face.
What is the functional solutions model?
It identifies the functional impairments of a person and looks for ways to create and innovate new ways to help people interact with their environment.
What is a weakness of the functional solutions model?
The search for a specific way to solve a problem might mean that a broader way to solve the problem is overlooked.
What are three types of visual disabilities?
Blindness, low vision, color blindness
What are five types of mobility disorders?
Manual dexterity/fine motor control, ambulation, muscle fatigue, body size, body shape and form
What are some types of cognitive disorders?
Intellectual, memory, reading, math comprehension, ADHD, learning, dyslexia, language, autism
What are the two types of seizure disorders?
Photosensitive and general seizure disorder
What are three types of psychological disorders?
Social, emotional, and behavioral
What is the economic model?
It defines disability by a person's ability to work
What are pros of the economic model?
It recognizes that some people will need modifications to their work environment and also that individuals who can't work may need financial assistance
What are the cons of the economic model?
It creates a specific standard for disability that a person has to meet, and it also can be stigmatizing
What is the definition of perceivable?
Making the output of web content available in multiple ways so different users can access it
What is the definition of operable?
Making the input methods for web content accessible to all users
What's the definition of understandable?
Making UI and content that everyone can comprehend
What are ways to make a web product more understandable?
Declaring the language of a page, checking/simplifying the reading level, explaining technical concepts and jargon, writing out the full name for acronyms and abbreviations the first time they're used, provide images or audio versions of the content, having a consistent layout, give clear instructions and error messages
What's the definition of robust?
Making sure there's compatibility with a variety of ways a user could interact with the content
What are ways to make a site or product's code more robust?
Use standard HTML markup and ARIA
What are ways to make a site or product more perceivable?
Make sure every non-text element has a text alternative and use ARIA
How can you make a product or site more operable?
Make sure that a person can use the site or product with whatever method works best for them by testing with different methods, only using JS elements when necessary, controlling the focus, giving users enough time to complete a task
What are the 3 Universal Designs for Learning principles?
1. provide multiple means of representation
2. provide multiple means of action and expression
3. provide multiple means of engagement
How can you provide multiple means of representation?
Ensure different options are used to deliver information to students so students with disabilities and different learning styles have the same access to education
What are ways to provide multiple means of action and expression?
Give students different options for showing the knowledge they've gained. Some students will be good at quizzes and tests, but others will be better at projects or presentations.
How can an instructor provide multiple means of engagement?
Help students remember and process information so it will stay in their memories. Give students the chance to personalize what they're learning so they want to be involved. Help them keep their attention on the subject through collaboration and feedback.
What's the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?
A document created by the UN in 1948 that created the first list of global basic human rights
What's the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities?
A UN human rights treaty that was adopted in 2006 and went into effect in 2008, which was designed to change the way people with disabilities are looked at from objects in need of charity and medical diagnoses to subjects with rights and freedom. 163 countries have signed it and 181 have ratified it.
In 2008 the Optional Protocol gave power to the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
What is the Marrakesh Treaty?
Created in 2013 and became legally binding in 2016 by the World Intellectual Property Organization with the main goal of creating a set of mandatory limitations and exceptions for the benefit of the visual impaired. It allows organizations to create non-print versions without violating copyright.
What are the categories of laws relating to disabilities?
Civil rights laws, procurement laws, domain/industry-specific laws
What are civil rights laws?
Laws that work to remove discrimination in society to create equal opportunities for people with disabilities (like the ADA, Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, the UK Equality Act of 2010, and the Japanese Act on the Elimination of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities)
What are procurement laws?
Laws that regulate products or services to ensure that they meet accessibility standards (like Section 508 and the EN 301 549: "Accessibility requirements suitable for public procurement of ICT products and services in Europe")
What are industry-specific laws?
Laws that regulate specific industries or technologies (like the 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act, the Air Carrier Access Act, Web Standards for the Government of Canada, Standards sur l'accessibilité du Web, and other country-specific regulations for websites that are based on WCAG 1.0 or 2.0)
What are the three phases of the web development process?
Plan (set requirements and design the UX and UI), create (write text content, make graphics and videos, write the front end and back end code, add third party pieces), and test (code, content, and multimedia)
What are ICT options for people with visual disabilities?
screen readers, braille keyboards, speech input, gestures on mobile, haptic alerts, screen magnification tools
What are ICT options for people with hearing disabilities?
keyboards, video options for signing, teletype
What are ICT options for people who are deafblind?
Braille keyboards and output, haptic/sensory alerts and feedback
What are ICT options for people with mobility disabilities?
Switch devices, adaptive keyboards, voice recognition, pointing devices
What are ICT options for people with cognitive disabilities?
simplified interfaces, word lookup, screen readers, customizable colors/fonts, interactive transcripts, ways to block animations
What does ICT mean?
Information and Communication Technology
What does AAC mean?
Augmentative and Alternative Communication
What are the 7 principles of universal design?
1. equitable use
2. flexibility in use
3. simple and intuitive use
4. perceptible information
5. tolerance for error
6. low physical effort
7. size and space for approach and use
What are the three types of primary brain networks?
1. Recognition networks - collecting and understanding information and recalling facts
2. Strategic networks - planning, organizing, and connecting
3. Affective networks - giving personal meaning to knowledge
What's the difference between usability and UX?
Usability is whether a user can accomplish their goal on the site or product, and UX is more about whether the person enjoyed their experience.
How can you create equitable use cases?
Providing equal or equivalent information and tools for all users
How can you make a site more flexible to use?
Provide choice and options in how users use things, and provide accommodations and adaptability to user's preferences and pace
How can you make a site more simple and intuitive to use?
Not adding any unnecessary complexity, providing consistency, putting the most useful information first, provide feedback
How can you add information to your site or product in a way that's perceivable?
Use different ways of providing information, provide adequate contrast, write content at the lowest reading level that will still distribute accurate information, providing compatibility with multiple devices
What are ways to increase tolerance for error on a site?
Have warnings and error messages, arrange pieces so the things that are complicated or are the most likely to create an issue are hidden or harder to get to
How do you design for low physical effort?
Minimize repeated actions or sustained effort and allow users to stay in a neutral body position
How do you design for size and space?
Make it easy for a person of any height to see, provide space for people using assistive technology, help people grip and move items
Which type of colorblindness is the most common?
red and green colorblindess
Approximately how many people in the world are blind?
The WHO says around 39 million people (around 1 million in the US) are blind
Approximately how many people in the world have low vision?
Around 246 million people (most of whom live in low income settings) have low vision
Approximately how many people in the world have some level of hearing loss?
Potentially around 466 million people have some level of hearing loss, but estimates vary based on how it's defined.
Around how many people in the world are deafblind?
Approximately 97.6 million people in the world are deafblind (35,000 to 50,000 in the US)
What is the ADA?
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities. Amendments were added that went into effect in 2009.
What is the UK Equality Act of 2010?
The Equality Act 2010 legally protects people from discrimination in the workplace and in wider society. It replaced laws regarding discrimination against various groups with one broad law.
What is Section 508?
A law created to eliminate barriers in information technology, to make available new opportunities for people with disabilities, and to encourage development of technologies that will help achieve these goals.
It applies to the US government's acquisition of technology and products, which means companies that do business with the government need to follow it.
What's a VPAT?
A Voluntary Product Accessibility Template is a list of potential attributes of a product. It's designed to make it easier for the government or a third party to determine whether a product meets their accessibility standards.
What is the EN 301 549?
A European procurement law that specifies the functional accessibility requirements applicable to ICT products and services, along with a description of the test procedures and evaluation methods for each accessibility requirement in a way that's suitable for use in public procurement within Europe.
What's the 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA)?
A law signed in 2010 that increased the access of persons with disabilities to modern communications by making sure accessibility laws enacted in the 1980s and 1990s were brought up to date with 21st century technologies, including new digital, broadband, and mobile innovations.
What is the Air Carrier Access Act of 1986?
An American law that made it illegal for commercial airlines to discriminate against people with disabilities.
In 2013 an update was added to the law regarding accessibility of airline's websites.
What is the Japanese Basic Law for Persons with Disabilities?
A civil rights law from 1970 created to promote welfare for persons with disabilities.
1. Every person with disability shall have a right to be respected for his or her individual dignity and lead a decent life.
2. Every person with disability, as a member of the society, shall be entitled opportunities to participate in social, economic, cultural and all other activities in the society.
3. No one shall be allowed to discriminate against persons with disabilities or violate their rights and benefits on the basis of disability.
What is the Swedish Discrimination Act of 2009?
A civil rights law designed to combat discrimination and in other ways promote equal rights in Sweden.
What is the Ontarians with Disabilities Act?
A Canadian civil rights law from 2001 that was amended in 2005 supporting the right of persons of all ages with disabilities to enjoy equal opportunity and to participate fully in the life of the province.
What is the Universal Design principle "equitable use" and what are some examples of it?
The design of the product or environment should be useful and marketable to everyone - if it can't be equal it should be equivalent.
- having the same entrance for everyone
- sidewalks with curb cuts
- elevators in buildings with multiple floors
What is the Universal Design principle "flexibility in use" and what are some examples of it?
An environment or product should be adaptable to an individual's preferences and abilities - there should be options and features.
- taxis and public transportation with wheelchair access
- options to pay with cash or cards
- kiosks with different height options and both audio and touchscreen capabilities
What is the Universal Design principle "simple and intuitive use" and what are some examples of it?
The purpose of the product or environment's features should be easy to understand - a person who doesn't speak the language or who has a cognitive disability should still be able to use it.
- standardized signs, symbols, and icons
- printed materials that have both text and images
- control panels that don't have extra buttons
What is the Universal Design principle "perceptible information" and what are some examples of it?
A person's sensory abilities should not hinder them from receiving information.
- Braille next to printed text on signs and buttons
- Visual and audio feedback at transportation stations and on elevators
- Doorbells that have lights or vibrating options instead of only sound
What is the Universal Design principle "tolerance for error" and what are some examples of it?
The design should lower the chances of an error or accident happening.
- touchscreens and buttons should be large
- appliances that could be dangerous and screens that include private information should shut off or log out after a specific amount of time (preferably with the option to extend the time period)
What is the Universal Design principle "low physical effort" and what are some examples of it?
A person should be able to use the product or navigate the environment comfortably without getting unnecessarily tired.
- drinking fountains, doors, and toilets that have automatic sensors
- kitchen utensils that are easy to hold and use
- touch lamps
What is the Universal Design principle "size and space for approach and use" and what are some examples of it?
Space should be provided in the design so that it allows anyone to use the design features regardless of physical build or physical abilities.
- bathrooms with space for walkers and wheelchairs
- turnstiles and gates in public places that are large enough for people with mobility issues
- wide aisles, hallways, and doorways
What is The Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities?
A non-legally binding document from the UN that can help governments make policy decisions regarding people with disabilities. It has 22 rules that fit into the following categories, as well as a monitoring mechanism:
1. Preconditions for Equal Participation
2. Target Areas for Equal Participation
3. Implementation Measures
What is the UK Civil Aviation Authority?
An advisory board founded in 1972 that oversees regulating aviation in the UK. The group has a goal of providing support and equal opportunities to fly for every passenger regardless of ability.
What is the ADA Title I?
It prohibits private companies, state and local governments, staffing companies, and labor unions from discriminating against people with disabilities during an application process, while working, or after they've been employed.
What is ADA Title II?
It prohibits state and local governments from preventing a person with disabilities from receiving equal access to services or programs.
What is ADA title III?
It prohibits discrimination in places of public accommodation (like schools, movie theaters, restaurants, and doctor's offices).
What does the ADA say "reasonable accommodation" means?
"Any modification or adjustment to a job, the job application process, or the work environment that will enable a qualified applicant or employee with a disability to participate in the application process, perform the essential functions of the job, or enjoy the benefits and privileges of employment."
What are the principles of inclusive design?
1. Provide a comparable experience
2. Consider situation
3. Be consistent
4. Give control
5. Offer choice
6. Prioritize content
7. Add value
Which disability type is the most common?
Cognitive disabilities, because it includes a range of things (from reading disabilities to attention to memory impairments)
What is the The Act on the Elimination of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities?
A Japanese law that went into effect in 2013 that prohibits discrimination based on disability and requires that reasonable accommodations are made to help remove social barriers.
What are types of speech disorders?
1. Apraxia - a person has trouble saying what they want to say correctly and consistently; it can either be developmental, where a person is born with it, or acquired, where it happens due to a head injury, tumor, or stroke.
2. Autism spectrum disorders - delayed speech skills are a symptom
3. Stuttering - a person stops or repeats parts of speech
4. Cluttering - speech might start out at a normal pace but is or becomes rapid or has an inconsistent rhythm
5. Dysarthria - a disability due to brain damage that can cause slow or slurred speech
6. Speech sound disorders - a person has difficulty saying certain sounds, and might pronounce sounds incorrectly or use a different sound instead
7. Muteness - the inability to produce speech verbally
8. other speech disorders caused by things like brain trauma, ALS, Parkinson's Disease, and MS
If a form label isn't set up correctly and a screen reader won't read it, which POUR principle does this violate?
If a site doesn't work on one type of web browser what POUR principle does this violate?
If a nav menu only expands on mouse hover and not on keyboard focus what POUR principle does this violate?
If website meant for the general public uses industry-specific jargon and terminology which POUR principle does this violate?
What is the role of an accessibility integration manager?
They lead a team to incorporate accessibility into the company's processes, standards, and guidelines.
What levels of a company should be invested in accessibility?
Everyone, including and especially managers and executive level employees, should be invested in accessibility. Leaders should be the voice that lets the rest of the company know the importance of accessibility at the organization.
At what step of the design and development process should accessibility start to be considered?
Planning (specifically the "Set Requirements" step)
What are some steps to take when preparing to audit and update existing sites to make them more accessible?
1. creating a list of everything within the product or on the site/app that needs to be checked
2. audit all of the items (preferably starting with the most used pages/parts)
3. organize the issues into a list by priority (starting with the things that will make the most impact first, or with things that can be done quickly)
Making sure products are accessible can add extra time to a project - what are the best and worse case scenarios for how much extra time it might take?
Best case is up to 5% extra, and worse can is that it can triple the amount of time spent on a project. Having accessibility experts in key roles will lower the time and expense.
What is the biopsychosocial model?
This model combines the medical and social models to attempt to take the best parts of each model.
What is Section 1557 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act?
Section 1557 is the nondiscrimination provision of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability in certain health programs or activities.
Around how many websites existed when the ADA went into law in 1990?
zero - the first "real" website was made in 1991
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