Chapter 29 Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized the Land
Terms in this set (62)
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
A plant with vascular tissue. Vascular plants include all modern species except the mosses and their relatives.
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
Seedless plants with true roots with lignified vascular tissue. The group includes ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails.
An adaptation for terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a resistant coat.
A vascular plant that bears naked seeds—seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers.
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
The green algal group that shares two ultrastructural features with land plants. They are considered to be the closest relatives of land plants.
rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes
Rose-shaped array of proteins that synthesize the cellulose microfibrils of the cell walls of charophyceans and land plants.
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
An alignment of cytoskeletal elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the mid-line of a dividing plant cell.
placental transfer cells
Plant cells that enhance the transfer of nutrients from parent to embryo.
Another name for land plants, recognizing that land plants share the common derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.
alternation of generations
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.
a multi cellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alterations of generations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
The multi cellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
In the life cycle of a plant or alga undergoing alternation of generations, a meiotically produced haploid cell that divides mitotically, generating a multi cellular individual, the gametophyte, without fusing with another cell.
A secondary product, a polymer synthesized by a side branch of a major metabolic pathway of plants that is resistant to almost all kinds of environmental damage; especially important in the evolutionary move of plants onto land.
sporangium (plural sporgia)
A capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop.
spore mother cells
The cells that undergo meiosis and generate haploid spores within a sporangium.
The reproductive organ of bryophytes, consisting of the male antheridium and female archegonium; a multi chambered jacket of sterile cells in which gametes are formed.
in plants, the female gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop.
In plants, the male gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop.
. A waxy covering on the surface of stem and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants. also The exoskeleton of an arthropod, consisting of layers of protein and chitin that are variously modified for different functions.
pores that support photosynthesis by allowing the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the air and the leaf interior, also main avenues by which water exits the leaves by evaporation.
The tube-shaped, nonliving portion of the vascular system in plants that carries water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant.
The portion of the vascular system in plants consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
An international initiative focusing on the deepest phylogenetic branching within the plant kingdom to identify and name the major plant clades.
The name given to the group that includes the traditional plant kingdom and the green algae most closely related to plants, the charophyceans and a few related groups.
The broadest version of the plant kingdom that includes the members of the kingdom Streptophyta plus the chlorophytes (non-charophycean green algae).
The kingdom that contains the plants
The group of liverworts, small herbaceous (non-woody) plants.
Members of the phylum Hepatophyta, they are small herbaceous (non-woody) plants.
The group of hornworts, small herbaceous (non-woody) plants.
A formal group of mosses. Note that the term "bryophyte " refers instead to the informal group of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, nonvascular plants that inhabit the land but lack many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
A mass of green, branched, one-cell thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores.
The mature gamete-producing structure of a gametophyte body of a moss.
Long tubular single cells or filaments of cells that anchor bryophytes to the ground. Rhizoids are not composed of tissues, they lack specialized conducting cells, and they do not play a primary role in water and mineral absorption.
The portion of a moss sporophyte that gathers sugars, amino acids, water, and minerals from the parent gametophyte via transfer cells.
The elongated stalk of a moss sporophyte.
a capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop.
A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces
a protective cap of gametophyte tissue that covers an immature capsule which is lost when the capsule is ready to release spores.
The upper part of the moss capsule (sporangium) often specialized for gradual spore discharge.
Extensive deposits of undecayed organic material formed primarily from the wetland moss Sphagnum.
Extensive high latitude boreal wetlands occupied by Sphagnum.
sporophytes that can become independent of parental gametophytes. A characteristic of vascular plants
seedless vascular plants
The collective name for the phyla Lycophyta (lycophytes) and Pteridophyta (ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails).
A group of Silurian moss-like ancestors that were like bryophytes in lacking lignified vascular tissue but were different in having independent, branched, sporophytes that were not dependent on gametophytes for their growth.
The small leaves of lycophytes that have only a single, unbranched vein.
The larger leaves of modern vascular plants served by a highly-branched vascular system.
Referring to plants in which the sporophyte produces two kinds of spores that develop into unisexual gametophytes, either female or male.
Referring to plants in which a single type of spore develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs.
referring to plants in which the sporophyte produces two kinds of spores that develop into unisexual gametophytes, either female or male.
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a female gametophyte bearing archegonia.
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a male gametophyte with antheridia.
Lycophyte leaves specialized for reproduction.
The whisk fern; known as a "living fossil"; lack true leaves and roots.
Commonly called horsetails because of their brushy appearance.
Most widespread of the phylum Pterophyta and most divers in the tropics; have horizontal rhizomes from which grow large compound leaves (fronds) with extensively branched vascular system.
Clusters of fern sporangia on the backs of green leaves or on special, non-green leaves (sporophylls). May be arranged in various patterns, such as parallel lines or dots, that are useful in fern identification.