Exam 1 test Psychology
Terms in this set (74)
In December 1879, Wilhelm Wundt created the first psychology _____, in Germany.
Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the links between hormone levels and sexual motivation?
In an experiment conducted by Professor Costa, the participants' first task is to press any button if they see a red light blink. For the second task, they press the rightmost button if they see a red light blink and the leftmost button if they see a green light blink. Professor Costa is studying the difference in the average lag times of these two tasks. This is similar to experiments conducted by which of these early psychologists?
Which philosopher said that knowledge is not preexisting but grows from experiences?
_____ might be considered an early representative of psychologists who today focus on the adaptive functions of behaviors and emotions (that is, those who study how behaviors and emotions appear to have helped our ancestors to survive).
The leader of a self-help group has asked you to recommend an approach to psychology that emphasizes personal growth and people's need for love and acceptance. Which branch of psychology would you recommend for this group?
Professor Boyd believes that children in every culture can distinguish between costs and benefits because humans have an inborn understanding of economics. This belief is most consistent with the views of:
Researchers today can use technology such as fMRI scans to measure brain activity. Some researchers use the introspection technique with their subjects while obtaining the scans, which is similar to the methodology used by the early psychologist _____.
Psychologists who today focus on the adaptive functions of behaviors and emotions (that is, those who study how behaviors and emotions appear to have helped our ancestors to survive) would likely consider _____ an early representative of their approach to psychology
Researchers today can use technology such as fMRI scans to measure brain activity. Some researchers ask their subjects to describe elements of their experiences (e.g., sensations, images, feelings) while undergoing the scans. This _____ technique is similar to the methodology of _____.
Your professor argues that children's innate concept of justice enables them to make distinctions between fair and unfair rules. This argument is most consistent with the views of the ancient philosopher _____.
You're having trouble coping with stressful life events, so you begin seeing a therapist. The therapist does not focus on your childhood experiences or on any learned behaviors, but rather she emphasizes the importance of your need for love and acceptance. Her approach is best described as _____.
Titchener is to _____ as Freud is to psychoanalysis.
Researchers continue to debate the origin of knowledge. Some believe that we are born with certain types of knowledge, while others believe that knowledge is gained through experience. Your professor believes that children learn language through experiences. This approach is most similar to the ideas of the ancient philosopher_____.
A focus on the different marriage rituals practiced by members of different ethnic groups is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
William and Joy are seeing Dr. Royce for marital issues. Neither one of them has any psychopathology, but they are interested in strengthening their relationship. Dr. Royce is most likely a _____ psychologist.
If a researcher focuses primarily on emotional responses, learned fears and other learned expectations, he is focusing on:
Is alcohol addiction biologically determined or culturally influenced? This question is most relevant to the issue of:
Nature vs Nuture
A focus on how we learn observable responses is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
Professor Chung conducts basic research to investigate whether a teacher's negative perceptions of some students can affect the students' subsequent academic performance. Professor Chung is most likely a _____ psychologist.
Your professor directs a child and adolescent clinic that focuses on helping patients change their behavior, not on helping them understand themselves or satisfy their inner needs. Which perspective on psychology does your professor have?
According to the SQ3R method, to survey a chapter means to:
read only the headings and study the organization of the chapter.
Ivan Pavlov pioneered the study of _____.
A unified understanding of explanations provided by the neuroscientific, cognitive, social-cultural, and other psychological perspectives is most clearly provided by:
a biopsychosocial approach.
The problem with common sense is that it tends to reflect biases and other errors in our thinking. For this reason, when we are trying to explain psychological phenomena, common sense is not as reliable as:
a scientific attitude.
Some historians of science believe that three attitudes--curiosity, _____, and humility--helped make modern science possible.
Psychological studies conducted in laboratory settings reveal general _____ that help explain many behaviors.
_____ is an error in thinking that illustrates why the scientific approach is more reliable than intuition and common sense when trying to explain psychological phenomena.
best exemplifies critical thinking
Doubting a claim because it is based on intuition and not on evidence.
Although psychology does have the power to deceive, its purpose is to _____.
_____ is also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.
Doubting a claim because it is based on intuition and not on evidence exemplifies _____ thinking.
Psychological studies conducted in laboratory settings:
reveal general principles that help explain many behaviors.
Your high school's homecoming queen married the captain of the football team right after graduation, and you have just found out that they are splitting up. Thinking back to your high school days, you have the feeling that you would have predicted this, but you fail to remember that you told your best friend at the time that you could not imagine them apart from each other. This illustrates:
Is there life after death? Can some people demonstrate ESP? An important difference between these two questions is that the first is probably beyond science, whereas the second can be tested by using:
an empirical approach
Researchers' values influence their choice of topics. Perceptions can bias observations and interpretations. In other words, psychology is NOT:
Although psychology does indeed have the power to _____, its purpose is to enlighten.
The results of Dr. Clark's studies indicated that teen parents tend to develop healthier relationships with female infants than with male infants. However, three subsequent studies by other psychologists failed to confirm these results. After reading these other studies, Dr. Clark suspected that her own studies were flawed in some way. This shows that Dr. Clark possessed _____, which is one of the three main components of the scientific attitude.
A local school board is setting up a program to help prepare children to become scientists. To carry out this program, which attitudes should teachers encourage in their students?
curiosity, skepticism, and humility
Josh does not doubt anything his teacher tells him but just accepts it all as absolute truth. Josh lacks which of the following aspects of the scientific attitude?
The idea that parental behaviors determine a child's sexual orientation may seem plausible to you, while the idea that your future can be predicted on the basis of the positions of the planets at your birth may not. However, both ideas should be _____ using _____ to see if they hold up under scrutiny.
tested; an empirical approach
How does the scientific attitude relate to critical thinking?
The scientific attitude prepares us for critical thinking.
Ethical principles developed by psychologists urge investigators to treat information about individual research participants _____.
All of the following statements are part of the American Psychological Association's guidelines for animals in research EXCEPT:
mandating best nutrition for lab animals.
minimizing pain of animal subjects.
mandating comfort of lab animals.
minimizing infection of animal subjects.
mandating best nutrition for lab animals.
use integrated sets of principles to predict behaviors or events.
The _____ is a descriptive method of research in which one individual is studied in depth.
A person who believes that there is a correlation between two factors is more likely to take note of and remember incidents that support this belief. In other words, he or she perceives a relationship where one does not actually exist. This is known as a(n):
In order to control for experimenter bias as well as extraneous variables such as severity of condition, attitudes, age, etc., researchers assign subjects to groups by _____ assignment.
When we are generalizing from a sample, we must keep in mind that representative samples are better than _____ samples.
Observations made by a psychologist performing a research study should be repeatable by another psychologist performing essentially the same study with different participants. This process of repeating a study to confirm its findings is called _____.
Surveys on television news programs and on the Internet can attract responses from many thousands of people, but the results of such surveys can be misleading because the people responding are unlikely to be a(n):
A correlation coefficient can:
range from +1.00 indicating a perfect positive correlation to -1.00 indicating a perfect negative correlation.
In science, the clearest way to isolate cause and effect is to conduct a(n):
The _____ can be particularly biased or _____ when there are a few extreme scores.
Operational _____ help psychologists repeat the essence of a research study, in a process known as replication.
Which of the following research methods is best at observing and recording behavior in various environments without trying to control the situation?
A _____ correlation indicates that two sets of scores tend to rise and fall together such as height and weight. A(n) _____ correlation indicates that two sets of scores tend to have an inverse relationship (as one goes up the other goes down) such as time spent brushing teeth and tooth decay.
The experimental method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether caffeine consumption causes increased athletic performance because:
it is the only method that measures cause and effect.
The latest incomes have just been released for people living in your community. The income is listed as $75,000 per person; however, you find this strange because the majority of people in the community work at the local factory making less than $50,000 a year. Upon further research at the town hall, you discover that the income is actually $39,000 by using what measure of central tendency?
A good theory produces _____, which are testable _____.
The _____ research method often suggests directions for further study but may mislead us if the person being studied is atypical.
Kelsey is a research assistant in drug-treatment studies. Her professor said they are using a double-blind procedure to minimize the chance that _____ are responsible for differences between experimental and control conditions.
the placebo effect
Operational _____ help psychologists repeat the essence of a research study; this process is known as _____.
Molly spends most of her time with her friends, mostly other students at her school who share her attitudes and opinions. This probably means that Molly and her friends make what kind of sample of all the students at the school?
an unrepresentative sample
Dr. Ruth decided to assess whether sexual stimulation affected people's sense of humor. She showed married couples either sexually stimulating or non-sexually stimulating movie scenes. Then the couples watched a comedy skit and Dr. Ruth's assistants measured how much the couples laughed. In this research, the dependent variable consisted of:
sense of humor.
Roger believes that he has extrasensory perception (ESP). He predicts that he will be able to correctly guess heads or tails at least 85 times out of 100 coin flips. This prediction is a(n):
Which of the following is likely to provide the best basis for making generalizations about the attitudes or behaviors of the people in a population?
a survey of a representative sample of the people in the population
Most of our early knowledge about the brain came from _____ of individuals with brain damage.
The _____ method is a self-correcting process for asking questions and observing answers.
_____ is a descriptive method of research in which one individual is studied in depth.
People who suffer from schizophrenia have an excess of _____.
An automatic reflex such as a knee jerk or withdrawing a hand from a flame involves:
An example of the interaction of the nervous and endocrine systems can be seen in our response to danger. The _____ orders the adrenal glands to release the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which act to provide a surge of energy.
autonomic nervous system
Santiago Ramón Cajal referred to these as "protoplasmic kisses."