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40 terms

Chapter 24 and 26 Identifications AP European

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Triple Entente
Alliance between Britain, France, and Russia
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy
The July Crisis
crisis started with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and ultimately spiraled into WWI
Francis Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria, assassination in Sarajevo
Schlieffan Plan
Germany's two prong attack plan take France first then attack Russia
Battle of the Marne
the most strategically important battle of WWI, started the tactic of trench warfare. Germany vs. Britain and France
trench warfare
this type of warfare was introduced in the battle of the Marne, where troops literally dug themselves in the ground
Gallipoli
the Allies attempted a land invasion at this peninsula in April 1915, the Turks defended the coast and the Allies were defeated
Verdun
a German attack on this French stronghold, this place became a symbol of France's strength, they would defend at all costs
The Somme
a British offensive against Germany at this place, British were bombarded by wire and machine gun fire
Edmund Allenby
British commander in Egypt and Palestine, he led a multi-nationality army against the Turks
T.E. Lawrence
A British officer who popularized Arab's guerilla actions, he is entered in popular mythology as "Lawrence of Arabia"
Easter Rebellion
this was a rebellion that broke out on Easter Sunday of 1919 in Dublin and was quickly crushed by the British
Rasputin
spiritual mentor and faith healer to tsar Nicholas' wife
February Revolution
a revolt that began on women;s day, February 23, where Russian citizens demanded food, fuel, and political reform
Vladimir Lenin
leader of the bolshevik splinter party in Russia, he was a young dedicated revolutionary. His real name was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
October Revolution
October 1917 uprising in russia led by lenin and the Bolsheviks to overthrow the provisional Russian government, withdrew Russia from WWI, establish one-party Bolshevik state
Brest-Liotovsk
this was a treaty between Russia's new Bolshevik government and Germany. Russia ceded mass territory
Versailles Treaty
this treaty ended WWI, it forced Germany to pay reparations and to give up its colonies to the victors
League of Nations
international organization founded after WWI to solve international disputes through arbitration, one of Wilson's 14 Points, it was dissolved in 1946
appeasement
grounded in three assumptions, provoking another war was unthinkable, Germany had been mistreated at Versailles and grievances should be acknowledged, and many of the people for this were anticommunist
Spanish Civil War
this civil war was started due to the weak government's inability to overcome opposition. Many European countries intervened and Franco won in the end
Munich Conference
1938 conference between Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier, and mussolini. Here they bargained out a major piece of Czech
Blitzkrieg
"lightening war" Germany's strategy during WWII
Dunkirk
French port on the English channel where France and Britain retreated after heavy losses against German military
Vichy
French collaborationist government whose call to order was "Work, family, and country"
Free French
group in France led by Charles de Gaulle
Battle of Britain
in this battle the Germans dropped millions of tons of bombs on Britain targets
Winston Churchill
British prime minister after Chamberlain, he spoke words of courage and defiance when public needed it most
Erwin Rommel
a German man who led and elite armored force called the Afrika Corps
William Slim
and Indian army officer, he fought back Japanese troops
Operation Barbarossa
code name for Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union
Einsatzgruppen
"death squads" who had killed 85,000 people by 1941, mostly jews
Strategic Bombing
used by the US and Britain, they strategically planned where to drop bombs for best effect without killing too many citizens
Enrico Fermi
an Italian physicist who built the worlds first nuclear reactor
J. Robert oppenheimer
physicist who led the Manhattan project, he developed the first atomic bomb
Stalingrad
russian capital under Stalin, when it was under Lenin it was Leningrad. Site of decisive Russian victory
Grigorii Zhukov
Russian general who launched major offensive in the Ukraine, he ground down German resistance in Poland
Battle of the Bulge
Germany's last effort to regain power in WWII, they did well, but did not win
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
sites where the US dropped the atomic bomb