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lifespan chapter 7
Terms in this set (35)
A child is shown a large box and a small box. The large box contains a 5-pound weight and the small box contains a 10-pound weight. The child picks up the boxes and looks at them closely, and then is asked which weighs more. The child is no longer focused only on appearances, so he answers that the small box weighs more. Piaget would say that this child is in the_____ stage of cognitive development.
D) concrete operational
With concrete operational thought, children can _____.
A) think logically about visible, tangible things
B) think logically about abstract ideas
C) consistently make good decisions
D) solve most problems on their own
Nine-year-old Brady was invited to be part of the basketball team but his friend Aidan was not. Brady thinks that Aidan is a good basketball player. Brady is evaluating the situation and trying to decide if it was fair. What helps Brady with this decision is _____.
A) massive interconnectivity of the brain
B) increased neurotransmitter activity
C) decreased myelination of the limbic system
D) selective attention
Tony walked next door to José's house so they could go to school together. When José saw Tony's notebook in his backpack, he rushed back into his house to retrieve his own notebook, which contained his homework. José's sensation upon seeing Tony's notebook became a perception, which triggered José's _____.
A) sensory memory
B) working memory
C) long-term memory
D) knowledge base
Addie has weekly spelling tests. On Monday, she gets the list of 10 words and realizes she knows how to spell four of the words. Rather than studying these four words, she spends Tuesday and Wednesday studying the six new words. On Wednesday evening, she quizzes herself on the six words and learns she now knows how to
spell three more. Thursday, she studies the three words she still did not know how to spell. Friday morning before the spelling test, she quizzes herself on all 10 words and correctly spells all 10 words. Addie's ability to evaluate the task of learning words and monitor and adjust her performance throughout the learning process is due to _____.
C) control processes
D) abstract reasoning
Zoey is just learning to read. It takes a lot of work for her to read even one sentence because she needs to sound out every word. After a while Zoey will be able to read without thinking about the words. She will then be able to concentrate on the concepts of the text. _____ allows Zoey to become a more skilled reader.
A) Selective attention
B) Divided attention
D) Reaction time
The U.S. law, enacted in 2001, that aimed to increase educational accountability by requiring states to qualify for funding based on standardized measures of achievement is referred to as _____.
. Solomon was diagnosed with ADHD at an early age. Throughout school he had extreme academic difficulties, though he excelled at art. When he graduated from high school, he started a career as an artist; he quickly began selling his work and achieved critical acclaim. As an adult he was experiencing life success even though he still had symptoms of ADHD. Which of the four general principles of developmental psychopathology does this example best illustrate?
A) Abnormality is normal.
B) Disability changes year by year.
C) Life may be better or worse in adulthood.
D) Diagnosis and treatment reflect the social context.
Skylar experienced neglect as an infant while her mother suffered from severe depression. The outcome on Skylar's development could manifest itself in many different ways. This reflects the developmental principle of _____.
10. According to the DSM-5, for ADHD to be diagnosed _____.
A) several symptoms have to begin before age 12
B) there must be signs of other disorders, such as bipolar disorder
C) symptoms must occur for at least 6 weeks
D) symptoms must occur in only one context, such as at school or at home
large bodily movements
gross motor skills
fine motor skill
both ______ & _______ motor skills continue to refine during middle childhood
gross and fine
_______ ___________ in gross and fine motor skills are most noticeable during preschool years.
in a child, having a BMI above the 95th percentile.
In a child, having a BMI above the 85th percentile. BMI (body mass index): A person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters.
The time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically (with a reflexive movement such as an eye blink) or cognitively (with a thought)
Piaget's term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.
concrete operational thought
According to Piaget, how would a 4-year-old answer?
A 4-year-old cannot yet think with logic; the question would stump the child.
According to Piaget, how would a 9-year-old answer?
A 9-year-old has reached concrete operational thought and will probably answer correctly that Fritz is taller.
chances in information processing includes what 5 basic areas?
-information processing speed
-Initial, momentary storage of information
-Rapid decay but highly accurate
-Cognitive representations of unfiltered, unevaluated stimuli; not analyzed in terms of meaning
-Types: Visual, sound, smell, pain
the sensory store
-Children and adults initially record information in the sensory store in the same way
-IP failures are likely due to inability to draw out information from sensory store and to processing deficiencies in short term memory
• Control of attention increases with age
- Control what attending to
- Exclude irrelevant or extraneous stimuli
Increasing ability to allocate attentional resources on the basis of desired goals
- Develops throughout childhood and adolescence
-With nature of materials being remembered
-Capacity and speed of processing change with age, rehearsal is assumed to be constant
increase in short-term memory
-Refers more to the whole theoretical framework of structures and processes used for the temporary storage and manipulation of information
-Short term memory is one component
-Includes Central executive that controls functions of short-term memory, coordinating the problem-solving strategies, directing attention, and selecting strategies for remembering in short-term memory
-Component in which information is stored on relatively permanent basis
-Nearly limitless capacity
-New concepts are best remeber when they are connected to what is already known about a subject
long term memory
-The process by which a sequence of thoughts and action makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought
-Helps with initial encounters with stimuli through easy and automatic information processing
• Explicit Memory
• General knowledge
- capacity to recall words, concepts, or numbers, which is essential for the use and understanding of language.
"Thinking about thinking," or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task.
The practical use of language that includes the ability to adjust language communication according to audience and context.
- Impairs daily life
- No response to name
- Ignores people
- Avoids eye contact
- Want to be alone
- Difficulty interacting with others
- Unusual interests and behaviors
-life may be better or worse in adulthood
-diagnosis and treatment reflect the social context
-abnormality is normal
-disability changes year by year
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