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psychology names paper 3
Terms in this set (29)
Nurture debate. he said that the mind is like a blank slate at birth upon which learning and experience writes .
nature debate. he said that human characteristics are innate, they are a result of heredity.
Dias + Ressler
Interactionalist approach (epigenetics). gave male lab mice electric shocks every time they were exposed to a perfume. the mice were conditioned to fear the smell as a result. however not only did they fear the small but their offspring also feared the smell, despite never being exposed to it.
bottom up approach of offender profiling. developed geographical profiling and used it in the capture of john Duffy. created the circle theory.
Canter and Heritage
RS for bottom up approach of offender profiling. Conducted a content analysis of 66 sexual assault cases. This is a statistical tests which identifies correlations across patterns of behaviour. Several characteristics were identified as common in most cases.
Canter and Lundrigan
RS for bottom up approach of offender profiling (geographical profiling). Collated information from 120 murder cases involving serial killers in the USA. statistical analysis revealed geographical consistency, offenders showed similar center of gravity.
Mednick et al.
RS for the genetic explanation of offending. 13,000 danish adoptees. They found that adoptees whose biological and adoptive parents had criminal histories were the most likely to offend. They showed higher offending rates than adoptees who just had biological parents who had offended
research into genetic explanation of offending behaviour. investigated 13 MZ twins and 17 DZ twins. One twin in each pair had served time in prison. Found that 10 of the MZ twins but only 2 of the DZ twins had co-twin who was also in prison.
RS for the neural explanation of criminal behaviour. aimed to examine brain abnormalities if 41 participants who had been charged with murder and were pleading NGRI (not guilty for reasons of insanity). They gave them PET scans and found murders had less activity in their prefrontal and parietal area, more activity in their occipital areas and no difference in their temporal areas. Less activity in the corpus callosum. They had more activity in the left side and more in the right.
Eysenck + Eysenck
RS for Eysenck's criminal personality theory. Compared 2070 male prisoners' scores on the EPI with 2422 male controls. Prisoners recorded higher scores than controls on measures of psychoticism, extroversion and neuroticism.
Farrington et al
Research against extroversion and introversion in Eysencks criminal personality theory. reviewed several studies and found that offenders tended to score high on P measures but not E and N. there is also little evidence of consistent differences in cortical arousal between extroverts and introverts
Palmer and Hollin
RS for evolutionary theory. found that an innate preference for salt is found in many varying animal species. This supports food preferences as it suggests we have an innate preference for salt
RS for evolutionary theory. Placed sugar on the tongues of newborn humans and observed facial expressions. innate preference for sugar. Found evidence of negative facial expressions in response to bitter tastes. supports aversion as it shows an innate aversion to bitter tastes
Brown and Ogden (2004)
RS for learning food preferences. reported consistent correlations between parents and their children in terms of snack food intake, eating motivation and body dissatisfaction. food preferences are learnt through family influences
Anand and Brobeck
RS for neural mechanisms in controlling eating. studied rats and cats. broke their lateral hypothalamus which lead to under eating. eating behaviour is caused by the hypothalamus
Lashley and Brobeck et al
RS for neural mechanisms in controlling eating. studied rats, gave them lesions in the lateral hypothalamus which made the rats stop eating. Lesions to the ventro-medial hypothalamus causing rats to overeat. eating behaviour is caused by the hypothalamus
Wren et al
RS for hormonal mechanisms in controlling eating. Gave participants Ghrelin intravenously. short term increase in amount of food eaten. eating behaviour is controlled by hormonal mechanisms
RS for the genetic explanation of anorexia. carried out sequencing study on over 1200 anorexics. only one out of a possible 152 genes studied showed any correlation with anorexia. called epoxide hydrolase 2, it coded for an enzyme involved in the in the metabolism of cholesterol. This would make sense since many anorexics with the most severe symptoms have high cholesterol. genes are linked to anorexia
Holland et al. (1988)
RS for the genetic explanation of anorexia. studied 45 pairs of female twins. They found concordance rate of 56% for MZ twins but only 5% for DZ twins. genes are linked to anorexia
Treasure and Holland (1995)
RS for the genetic explanation of anorexia. replication of Holland (1988) and found less dramatic findings. MZ concordance rates of 65% and 32% for DZ twins. genes are linked to anorexia
Kaye et al (2005)
RS for the neural explanation of anorexia. conducted PET scans on 10 women recovering from AN compared with 12 healthy women in order to see a difference in dopamine activity. they found over activity in dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of women recovering from AN. AN is caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitters
Brockmeyer et al (2013)
RS for the family systems theory of anorexia. studied 112 female AN patients and healthy control participants. found AN patients showed a significantly greater desire to be autonomous. A similar finding was also found in an earlier study which found female AN patients were more controlling with their own behaviour and differentiated less clearly between themselves and other family members. family systems cause anorexia
Robin et al
practical application of family systems theory. Family therapy is an effective treatment compared to individual therapy. family systems theory has practical applications.
RS for social learning theory of anorexia. studied young women living in Fiji. Before 1995 they didn't receive western TV. By 1998 74% of young Fijian women surveyed said they were 'too big or fat'. anorexia caused by learning indirectly
Eysenck and Flanagan (2000)
research against for social learning theory of anorexia. point out that, whilst virtually all young women in the West are exposed to the media, only 3-4% of them develop an eating disorder.
Sachdev et al (2008)
RS for cognitive theory of anorexia. conducted an fMRI with AN patients and healthy controls. Shown images of their own and other people's body while being scanned. AN patients showed a different pattern of action when viewing images of themselves, compared to control. anorexia is caused by cognitive distortions.
Grave et al (2014)
practical application for cognitive theory of anorexia. study of CBT showed a substantial increase in weight and decrease in concerns about body shame amongst AN patients, an effect which was maintained in a one year follow up.
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