Greek Architecture

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Terms in this set (...)

Doric Order
(n.) The oldest and simplest of the three main orders of classical Greek architecture, characterized by heavy fluted columns with plain, saucer-shaped capitals and no base; A Roman order of similar design but with the addition of a base. This order is the most masculine.
Ionic Order
In Ionic temples, the columns are more slender than Doric ones, with scroll-shaped capitals (volutes), and they also have bases for the columns. Architrave is decorated by a continuous freize. This is the more feminine of the orders.
Corinthian Order
The last and most ornate of the Greek orders- contains a base, a fluted column shaft, and the capital is elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaf carvings. The most feminine of all the orders.
Naos (cella)
The "nucleus" of the Greek temple where the stature of the deity resides.
Peripteral
In classical architecture, a colonnade all around the cella and its porch(es). A peripteral colonnade consists of a single row of columns on all sides; a dipteral colonnade has a double row all around.
Stylobate
At the bottom of the columns; this is a continuous flat pavement on which a row of columns is supported.
Stereobate
In Greek architecture, the remaining steps of the platform underneath the stylobate.
Pediment
In Classical architecture, the triangular section of a temple roof often decorated with sculpture.
Entasis
In classical architecture, the slight swelling or bulge in the center of a column, which corrects the illusion of concave tapering produced by parallel or straight lines
Caryatids
A sculpture of a draped female figure acting as a column supporting an entablature.
Elevation
Architectural term that refers to the height of the building from the side. Another word for the side of the building (façade)
Entablature
In Classical architecture, the part of a building above the columns and below the roof. This part of a Classical temple includes the architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Column Shaft
One of three parts that make up the structure of a column that is decorated with fluting and is located between the capital and the base.
Flutes
Are ornamental vertical grooves cut into a column. The purpose of these is to represent what would of originally been a wooden column in it's place.
Drums
Individual sections of a column shaft, connected by metal or wood. These where placed on top of one another in the shape of cylindrical stone blocks.
Capitals
The uppermost member of a column which serves as a transition from the shaft to the lintel. In the early stages, such as the Doric period, this was of a plain and simple design and only served it's purpose which was to be of support. But in Ionic and Corinthian Orders, they are far more decorative.
Iktinos (Ictinus) and Kallikrates (architects)
The main greek architects involved in the construction of the Parthenon under the artist Phidias.
Abacus
A tablet placed horizontally on top of the capital of a column as an aid in supporting the architrave

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