APES Ch. 3 Evolution, Biodiversity, and Population Ecology
Terms in this set (39)
many interacting species that live in the same area
communities and the abiotic material with which their members interact
specific environment in which an organism lives
number of individuals within a population per unit area
stabilizes a population at its carrying capacity
species occuring in only one area
Over many years, the population of finches on the island ___
c) begins to look like graph c, disruptive selection, with regard to beak size
the hawks on the island have always eaten insects, lizards, and mammals, but they find the brightest yellow finches to be easy prey as well. over many years, the population of finches on the island ___
a) begins to look like graph a, directional selection, with regard to coloration
Over many many years, the population of finches on the island ___
a) begins too look like graph a, directional selection, with regard to wing length.
Extinction is ___
a) a natural process
Most extinction is ___
Which of the following is true?
a) species on earth today are but a fraction of all species that ever lived
the two processes that determine the world's current biodiversity are __
d) extinction and speciation rates
The fossil record clearly shows that ___
d) all species evolve from pre-existing species
A population is a (the) ___
c) group of individuals of a single species that live and interact in one area
Endemic species ___
e) are found only in one place on the planet
The functional role of a species in its community is its ___
High population density can ___
e) increase the incidence of disease transmission
Population distribution describes ___
c) spatial arrangement of individuals of a single species within a particular area or ecosystem
Age pyramids, used to show the age structure of a population, generally ___
d) indicate the relative numbers (frequency, or percentage) of individuals in each age class
Unregulated populations tend to increase by ___
b) exponential growth
The carrying capacity is ____
a) maximum sustainable population that a given environment can support
e) include the effects of disease, predators, and food on a single species within a community
Groups of organisms with low biotic potential, such as gray whales, that produce at most one offspring every other year___
b) are k-selected
Heavy rains and mudslides cause a river to change course, isolating two groups of lizards from one another, Over a long period of time ____
c) the groups will probably diverge genetically, and speciation may occur
Which of the following would be most vulnerable to extinction?
b) an orchid endemic to a forest where logging is occuring
Which of the following is accurate?
e) when we damage our ecosystems we lose both biodiversity and valuable ecosystem services
A small moth pollinates native trees when they bloom in April. Some of the moths emerge early March and discover a different blooming shrub to use as a resource. This is and example of what, over time, could be ___
a) sympatric speciaton
one example of artificial selection is ___
a) crossing of a lion and a tiger to get a sterile animal called a liger
In a population of field mice, an example of an adaptive trait that could help with reproduction and/or survival would be ____
d) having a bit more fur to withstand colder weather
A number of coyotes move into an area and begin to eat a population of small harvest mice. After several years, the harvest mice are much speedier runners than before he coyotes came. This is an example of _____
b) directional selection
Which of the following would represent a clumped population dispesion pattern?
c) a pod of 40 migrating grey whales
A Type I survivorship curve, with higher death rates at older ages, is typical of _____
d) large mammals such as gorillas
An example of a density-independent factor would be ___
b) cold weather causing the lake to freeze
Which of the following pairs contains, first, an r-selected and, second, a K-selected organism?
e) grasshoper; whales
A coyote, which can alter its food intake to match seasonal abundances of plants, fruits, r small animals, is considered to be____
a) a generalist, able to be flexibel
A species has evolved an asexual mode of reproduction by having offspring develop from unfertilized eggs. Which of the following will be true of this species' response to natural selection?
b) there will be less genetic variation from recombination a risk of not adapting quickly to environmental change
Which of the following gives the major factors that determine a populations's growth rate?
c) growth rate, death rate, emigration, immigraiton
which of the following statements most accurately describe the decline of frog populations on Monteverde in Costa Rica?
a) a warmer climate and the invasion of chytrid fungi are both implicated but not proven