Stop the transfusion, infuse normal saline solution, and call the physician.
Explanation: When a transfusion reaction occurs, the transfusion should be immediately stopped, normal saline solution should be infused to maintain venous access, and the physician and blood bank should be notified immediately. Other nursing actions include saving the blood bag and tubing, rechecking the blood type and identification numbers on the blood tags, monitoring vital signs, obtaining necessary laboratory blood and urine samples, providing proper documentation, and monitoring and treating for shock. Because they can cause red blood cell hemolysis, dextrose solutions should not be infused with blood products. Antihistamines are administered for a mild allergic reaction, not a hemolytic reaction.
Explanation: Phenelzine is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). MAOIs block the enzyme monoamine oxidase, which is involved in the decomposition and inactivation of norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine (a precursor to the previously stated neurotransmitters). Foods high in tyramine—those that are fermented, pickled, aged, or smoked—must be avoided because, when they are ingested in combination with MAOIs, a hypertensive crisis occurs. Some examples include salami, bologna, dried fish, sour cream, yogurt, aged cheese, bananas, pickled herring, caffeinated beverages, chocolate, licorice, beer, red wine, and alcohol-free beer.
lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea.
explanation: Lethargy is an early sign of lithium toxicity; if it goes undetected, vomiting and diarrhea soon develop. Lithium doesn't cause extrapyramidal effects, such as skeletal muscle contractions, cogwheel rigidity, and a thick tongue, or cholinergic effects, such as dry mouth, blurred vision, and urine retention. The drug also doesn't cause edema, orthostatic hypotension, or rash.