Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide

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What did Emile Durkheim believe and stress?
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Terms in this set (138)
Symbolic Interactionism
1. the structure of society lay in the elements of class, status, and power
2. society was split between owners and laborers
3. status and class determined power, and these ideas form the base of society
4. rationalization
5. emphasize the viewpoint of the individual and how that individual relates to society
6. the iron cage
where culture and social institutions restsuperstructure (Marx)a society's economic character forms thisbase (Marx)an individual's isolation from his society, his work, and his sense of selfalienationa person's beliefs and ideology that are in conflict with her best interestsfalse consciousnessa belief that modern society should be built around logic and efficiency rather than morality or traditionrationalizationa situation in which an individual is trapped by social institutionsiron cagethe idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habithabitualizationhow a subjective reality can drive events to develop in accordance with that reality, despite being originally unsupported by objective realityThomas Theoreman idea that becomes true when acted uponself-fulfilling prophecystress that occurs when too much is required of a single rolerole straina situation when one or more of an individual's roles clashrole conflictthe expression of a rolerole performanceAccording to Marx, the _____ own the means of production in a society. a. proletariat b. vassals c. bourgeoisie d. anomiec. bourgeoisieWhich of the following best depicts Marx's concept of alienation from the process of one's labor? a. A supermarket cashier always scans store coupons before company coupons because she was taught to do it that way. b. A businessman feels that he deserves a raise, but is nervous to ask his manager for one; instead, he comforts himself with the idea that hard work is its own reward. c. An associate professor is afraid that she won't be given tenure and starts spreading rumors about one of her associates to make herself look better. d. A construction worker is laid off and takes a job at a fast food restaurant temporarily, although he has never had an interest in preparing food before.d. A construction worker is laid off and takes a job at a fast food restaurant temporarily, although he has never had an interest in preparing food before.The concept of the iron cage was popularized by which of the following sociological thinkers? a. Max Weber b. Karl Marx c. Émile Durkheim d. Friedrich Engelsa. Max WeberÉmile Durkheim's ideas about society can best be described as ________. a. functionalist b. conflict theorist c. symbolic interactionist d. rationalista. functionalistMary works full-time at an office downtown while her young children stay at a neighbor's house. She's just learned that the childcare provider is leaving the country. Mary has succumbed to pressure to volunteer at her church, plus her ailing mother-in-law will be moving in with her next month. Which of the following is likely to occur as Mary tries to balance her existing and new responsibilities? a. Role conflict b. Self-fulfilling prophecy c. Status conflict d. Status straina. role conflictAccording to Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann, society is based on ________. a. habitual actions b. status c. institutionalization d. role performanceeither habitual actions or institutionalization?the process wherein people come to understand societal norms and expectations, to accept society's beliefs, and to be aware of societal valuessocializationa person's distinct identity that is developed through social interaction (Mead)selfthe common behavioral expectations of general society (Mead)generalized otherthe way people learn what society considered to be "good" and "bad" (Kohlberg)moral developmentthe influence of our genetic makeup on self-developmentnaturethe role that our social environment plays in self-developmentnurtureWhat are the agents of socialization?family, peer group, school, mass media, the work place, religion, and governmentthe process by which old behaviors are removed and new behaviors are learned in their placeresocializationthe process by which new members of a total institution loser aspects of their old identities and are given new onesdegradation ceremonythe informal teaching done in schools that socializes children to societal normshidden curriculumSocialization, as a sociological term, describes: a. how people interact during social situations b. how people learn societal norms, beliefs, and values c. a person's internal mental state when in a group setting d. the difference between introverts and extrovertsb. how people learn societal norms, beliefs, and valuesFrom a sociological perspective, which factor does not greatly influence a person's socialization? a. Gender b. Class c. Blood type d. Racec. Blood typeWhich one of the following is not a way people are socialized by religion? a. People learn the material culture of their religion. b. Life stages and roles are connected to religious celebration. c. An individual's personal internal experience of a divine being leads to their faith. d. Places of worship provide a space for shared group experiences.c. An individual's personal internal experience of a divine being leads to their faith.Which of the following is a manifest function of schools? a. Understanding when to speak up and when to be silent b. Learning to read and write c. Following a schedule d. Knowing locker room etiquetteb. Learning to read and writeany collection of at least two people who interact with some frequency and who share some sense of aligned identitygrouppeople who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any waycategorya collection of people who exist in the same place at the same time, but who don't interact or share a sense of identityaggregatesmall, informal groups of people who are closest to usprimary grouplarger and more impersonal groups that are task-focused and time limitedsecondary groupbeing oriented toward a task or goalinstrumental functiona group function that serves an emotional needexpressive functiona group a person belongs to and feels is an integral part of his identityin-groupa group that an individual is not a member of, and may even compete without-groupgroups to which an individual compares herselfreference groupthe main focus or goal of a leaderleadership functiona leader who is goal oriented with a primary focus on accomplishing tasksinstrumental leadera leader who is concerned with process and with ensuring everyone's emotional wellbeingexpressive leadera leader who encourages group participation and consensus-building before moving into actiondemocratic leadersa hands-off leader who allows members of the group to make their own decisionslaissez-faire leadersa leader who issues orders and assigns tasksauthoritarian leadersthe extent to which an individual complies with group or societal normsconformitylarge, impersonal organizationsformal organizationsformal organizations characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality.bureaucraciesthe increasing presence of the fast food business model in common social institutionsMcDonaldization of societywhat are the key characteristics of bureaucracies?-a general model that describes a collection of characteristics -type that could describe most examples of the item under discussionWhat role do secondary groups play in society? a. They are transactional, task-based, and short-term, filling practical needs. b. They provide a social network that allows people to compare themselves to others. c. The members give and receive emotional support. d. They allow individuals to challenge their beliefs and prejudices.a. They are transactional, task-based, and short-term, filling practical needsWhen a high school student gets teased by her basketball team for receiving an academic award, she is dealing with competing ______________. a. primary groups b. out-groups c. reference groups d. secondary groupsc. reference groupsWhich of the following is not an example of an in-group? a. The Ku Klux Klan b. A fraternity c. A synagogue d. A high schoold. a high schoolWhat is a group whose values, norms, and beliefs come to serve as a standard for one's own behavior? a. Secondary group b. Formal organization c. Reference group d. Primary groupc. Reference groupWho is more likely to be an expressive leader? a. The sales manager of a fast-growing cosmetics company b. A high school teacher at a reform school c. The director of a summer camp for chronically ill children d. A manager at a fast-food restaurantc. The director of a summer camp for chronically ill childrenWhich of the following is not an appropriate group for democratic leadership? a. A fire station b. A college classroom c. A high school prom committee d. A homeless sheltera. a fire stationWhich type of group leadership has a communication pattern that flows from the top down? a. Authoritarian b. Democratic c. Laissez-faire d. Expressivea. AuthoritarianWhich of the following is not a characteristic of bureaucracies? a. Coercion to join b. Hierarchy of authority c. Explicit rules d. Division of labora. Coercion to joinWhat is an advantage of the McDonaldization of society? a. There is more variety of goods. b. There is less theft. c. There is more worldwide availability of goods. d. There is more opportunity for businesses.c. There is more worldwide availability of goods.What is a disadvantage of the McDonaldization of society? a. There is less variety of goods. b. There is an increased need for employees with postgraduate degrees. c. There is less competition so prices are higher. d. There are fewer jobs so unemployment increases.a. There is less variety of goods.a violation of contextual, cultural, or social normsdeviancethe regulation and enforcement of normssocial controlrewards given for conforming to normspositive sanctionspunishments for violating normsnegative sanctionssanctions that occur in face-to-face interactionsinformal sanctionssanctions that are officially recognized and enforcedformal sanctionsthe means of enforcing rulessanctionsa theory that addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goalsstrain theory (functionalism)a theory that asserts crime occurs in communities with weak social ties and the absence of social controlsocial disorganization theory (functionalism)a theory that suggests conformity to the prevailing cultural norms of lower-class society causes crimecultural deviance theory (functionalism)a small group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society who hold the power and resourcespower elite (conflict theory)looks to social and economic factors as the causes of crime and devianceconflict theorythe ascribing of a deviant behavior to another person by members of societylabeling theory (symbolic interactionism)a violation of norms that does not result in any long-term effects on the individual's self-image or interactions with othersprimary deviance (symbolic interactionism)deviance that occurs when a person's self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of societysecondary deviance (symbolic interactionism)a theory that states individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviancedifferential association theory (symbolic interactionism)a theory that states social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from societycontrol theory (symbolic interactionism)codes that maintain formal social control through lawslegal codescrimes based on the use of force or the threat of forceviolent crimecrimes that involve the destruction or theft of property, but do not use force or the threat of forcenonviolent crimecrime committed by average people against other people or organizations, usually in public spacesstreet crimecrime committed by white-collar workers in a business environmentcorporate crimeactivities against the law, but that do not result in injury to any individual other than the person who engages in themvictimless crimeWhat does the public think about crime rates?That crime rates are still high, or even worseningHow do the FBI and US Bureau of Justice Statistics gather data on crime?good question, i don't know.Which of the following best describes how deviance is defined? a. Deviance is defined by federal, state, and local laws. b. Deviance's definition is determined by one's religion. c. Deviance occurs whenever someone else is harmed by an action. d. Deviance is socially defined.d. Deviance is socially defined.A student has a habit of talking on her cell phone during class. One day, the professor stops his lecture and asks her to respect the other students in the class by turning off her phone. In this situation, the professor used __________ to maintain social control. a. Informal negative sanctions b. Informal positive sanctions c. Formal negative sanctions d. Formal positive sanctionsa. Informal negative sanctionsSocieties practice social control to maintain ________. a. formal sanctions b. social order c. cultural deviance d. sanction labelingb. social orderOne day, you decide to wear pajamas to the grocery store. While you shop, you notice people giving you strange looks and whispering to others. In this case, the grocery store patrons are demonstrating _______. a. deviance b. formal sanctions c. informal sanctions d. positive sanctionsc. informal sanctionsA student wakes up late and realizes her sociology exam starts in five minutes. She jumps into her car and speeds down the road, where she is pulled over by a police officer. The student explains that she is running late, and the officer lets her off with a warning. The student's actions are an example of _________. a. primary deviance b. positive deviance c. secondary deviance d. master deviancea. primary devianceAccording to C. Wright Mills, which of the following people is most likely to be a member of the power elite? a. A war veteran b. A senator c. A professor d. A mechanicb. A senatorAccording to social disorganization theory, crime is most likely to occur where? a. A community where neighbors don't know each other very well b. A neighborhood with mostly elderly citizens c. A city with a large minority population d. A college campus with students who are very competitivea. A community where neighbors don't know each other very wellAccording to the concept of the power elite, why would a celebrity such as Charlie Sheen commit a crime? a. Because his parents committed similar crimes b. Because his fame protects him from retribution c. Because his fame disconnects him from society d. Because he is challenging socially accepted normsb. Because his fame protects him from retributionA convicted sexual offender is released on parole and arrested two weeks later for repeated sexual crimes. How would labeling theory explain this? a. The offender has been labeled deviant by society and has accepted a new master status. b. The offender has returned to his old neighborhood and so reestablished his former habits. c. The offender has lost the social bonds he made in prison and feels disconnected from society. d. The offender is poor and responding to the different cultural values that exist in his community.a. The offender has been labeled deviant by society and has accepted a new master status.______ deviance is a violation of norms that ______result in a person being labeled a deviant. a. Secondary; does not b. Negative; does c. Primary; does not d. Primary; may or may notc. Primary; does notWhich of the following is an example of corporate crime? a. Embezzlement b. Larceny c. Assault d. Burglarya. EmbezzlementSpousal abuse is an example of a ________. a. street crime b. corporate crime c. violent crime d. nonviolent crimec. violent crimeWhich of the following situations best describes crime trends in the United States? a. Rates of violent and nonviolent crimes are decreasing. b. Rates of violent crimes are decreasing, but there are more nonviolent crimes now than ever before. c. Crime rates have skyrocketed since the 1970s due to lax corrections laws. d. Rates of street crime have gone up, but corporate crime has gone down.a. Rates of violent and nonviolent crimes are decreasing.the application of science to solve problems in daily lifetechnologythe gap in information that builds as groups grow up without access to technologyknowledge gapthe ability to sort through, interpret, and process digital knowledgee-readinessthe uneven access to technology around race, class, and geographic linesdigital dividethe principle that all Internet data should be treated equally by internet service providersnet neutralityall print, digital, and electronic means of communicationmediaWhat are the types of media?print newspaper, television and radio, and film and media (self-explanatory, know generally what they do)the worldwide integration of media through the cross-cultural exchange of ideasmedia globalizationthe cross-cultural development and exchange of technologytechnological globalizationa process by which fewer and fewer owners control the majority of media outletsmedia consolidationa situation in which a few firms dominate a marketplaceoligopolythe spread of technology across borderstechnological diffusionTheoretical perspectives on media and technology (functionalism)commercial function - advertising (to meet the demographic for the area) entertainment function - television and movies societal norm function - all media teaches us what is good and desirable, how we should speak, behave, and react to events life-changing functions - facetime to talk to family members far awayConflict perspective on media and technology...gatekeeping unbalanced political arena panoptic surveillance feminist perspective cyberfeminismthe sorting process by which thousands of possible messages are shaped into a mass media-appropriate form and reduced to a manageable amountgatekeepinga form of constant monitoring in which the observation posts are decentralized and the observed is never communicated with directlypanoptic surveillancesymbolic interaction on media and technology...Neo-Luddites and technophiles social construction of realityJerome is able to use the Internet to select reliable sources for his research paper, but Charlie just copies large pieces of web pages and pastes them into his paper. Jerome has _____________ while Charlie does not. a. a functional perspective b. the knowledge gap c. e-readiness d. a digital dividec. e-readinessThe ________ can be directly attributed to the digital divide, because differential ability to access the internet leads directly to a differential ability to use the knowledge found on the Internet. a. digital divide b. knowledge gap c. feminist perspective d. e-gapb. knowledge gapIf the U.S. Patent Office were to issue a patent for a new type of tomato that tastes like a jellybean, it would be issuing a _________ patent? a. utility patent b. plant patent c. design patent d. The U.S. Patent Office does not issue a patent for plants.b. plant patentWhich of the following is the primary component of the evolutionary model of technological change? a. Technology should not be subject to patenting. b. Technology and the media evolve together. c. Technology can be traced back to the early stages of human society. d. A breakthrough in one form of technology leads to a number of variations, and technological developments.d. A breakthrough in one form of technology leads to a number of variations, and technological developments.When Japanese scientists develop a new vaccine for swine flu and offer that technology to U.S. pharmaceutical companies, __________ has taken place. a. media globalization b. technological diffusion c. monetizing d. planned obsolescenceb. technological diffusionThe movie Babel featured an international cast and was filmed on location in various nations. When it screened in theaters worldwide, it introduced a number of ideas and philosophies about cross-cultural connections. This might be an example of: a. technology b. conglomerating c. symbolic interaction d. media globalizationd. media globalizationA parent secretly monitoring the babysitter through the use of GPS, site blocker, and nanny cam is a good example of: a. the social construction of reality b. technophilia c. a neo-Luddite d. panoptic surveillanced. panoptic surveillanceThe use of Facebook to create an online persona by only posting images that match your ideal self exemplifies the_____________ that can occur in forms of new media. a. social construction of reality b. cyberfeminism c. market segmentation d. referencinga. social construction of realityWhen it comes to media and technology, a functionalist would focus on: a. the symbols created and reproduced by the media b. the association of technology and technological skill with men c. the way that various forms of media socialize users d. the digital divide between the technological haves and have-notsc. the way that various forms of media socialize usersWhen all media sources report a simplified version of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing, with no effort to convey the hard science and complicated statistical data behind the story, ___________ is probably occurring. a. gatekeeping b. the digital divide c. technophilia d. market segmentationa. gatekeeping