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Exploration & Scientific Revolution
Terms in this set (45)
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to Asia
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
A mapmaker and explorer who said that America was a new continent, so America was named after him.
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe
Motives for Exploration
God, Glory, Gold
Economic Reasons for exploration
-want new sea routes to Asia for trade (spices)
-want to discover new valuables like gold, silver, & fur
Political Reasons for Exploration
-European countries want to be powerful
-European countries want influence
-set up colonies to increase influence and power
-want land (land means more wealth and more power)
Religious reasons for exploration
-Want to spread Christianity
-mission trips (missionaries)
-some people want religious freedom
(remember this follows the reformation)
-use religion to teach culture & customs
Established their own empire in South America
Territory in Florida through S. America
Conquered Saint Augustine
Sought natural resources from empire (gold & silver)
Conquerors = Conquistadors
-focused on COLONIZATION vs. Exploration (not the same thing)
-Explore=find something new
-colonizing= colony-stay & live
-sponsored Cabot to find a NW passage
-1st successful colony was Jamestown, Va (failed Roanoke, NC)
-settlements became known as 13 colonies (beginning of USA)
-tried to find a sea route to Asia
-1st to begin exploration at sea
-Prince Henry the Navigator started a school of exploration
- explore coast of Africa, explore India, Asia, Brazil (still speak Portuguese in Brazil today)
-explored Canada (Quebec- still speak French there today) Jacques Cartier
-claimed land near Mississippi (heavy French influence in NOLA today)
Ferdinand and Isabella
The king and queen of Spain who gave Columbus the funds that he needed to find a route to Asia.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Who was the Columbian Exchange named after?
How did exploration impact the world?
Found new plants, animals, & diseases
Exchange of goods (new world & old world)
European diseases (smallpox, measles, mumps, typhus) decimated Indigenous population (indigenous people did not have immunity built up like Europeans, they had never seen or been exposed to these diseases
Europeans often took over- conquered & enslaved native people
Exchange ideas, information, GLOBALLY.
a trade route that exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American colonies, and West Africa
The New World
North and South America
The Old World
Europe, Asia, Africa
-began by funding Christopher Columbus'
- Spain established its own empire that extended from present day Florida and Mexico in North America all the way to present
day Chile in South America.
-The Spanish empire held a variety of natural resources, including gold and silver mines.
Decline of native population
Main cause of native decline was new diseases brought by Europeans (smallpox, malaria); killed off millions of Indians; harsh treatment and slave labor also contributed
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the new world
Describe the Middle Passage
The cruel 6-8 week journey slaves took from Africa to the colonies. The slaves were packed tight in the ship. estimated 20% died of disease during the journey. The journey was long, there was little food, little fresh air. Slaves were held below deck with no hygiene or sanitation.
Positives of Columbian Exchange
food, wealth for Europe, new markets, shared cultures
Negatives of Columbian Exchange
Disease and slaves
Prince Henry the Navigator
Sent others to explore for him, made very first explorer school, first person to value exploring
physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
to travel for the purpose of discovery
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
earth-centered view of the universe
He used the scientific method to help prove Copernicus' heliocentric universe idea to be true
Devised a model of the universe with the Sun at the center, and not earth.
Sir Francis Bacon
developed the scientific method
Sir Isaac Newton
scientist that developed the three laws of motion
used math to prove scientific facts,
Father of modern philosophy
improved the telescope and used it to observe planets. He discovered that planets and moons are physical bodies because of his studies of the night skies.
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
the power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic
rational thinking using reason
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