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74 terms

chapter 11 cardiovascular system

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pulmonary vein
carries blood from the lungs to the heart
valve
structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so blood flows in only one direction
vena cava
largest vein in the body superior and inferior vana cava return blood to the right atrium of the heart
arteries
carry blood away from heart, thick elastic wall. Blood pressure high and carry oxygenated blood to tissues. inner lining=endothelium
veins
thin walled vessels that carries blood from the body tissues and lungs back to heart. Veins contain valves to prevent backflow. They are thinner, blood pressure low, poorly oxygentated blood.
pulse
beat of the heart as felt through the wall of the arteries
septal defect
small holes in the wall between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects)
vasoconstriction
narrowing of a vessel
tachycardia
condition of rapid heartbeat Faster than 100 bpm
thromophlebitis
phlebitis inflammation of vein with a clot
arteriole
carry oxygenated blood from arteries to the smallest blood vessels - capillaries. Arteries will branch into smaller and smaller arteries to arterioles.
atrium
one of two upper chambers of the heart, pumping chambers
aorta
largest artery in the body
heart block
failure of proper conduction of impulses through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
mitral valve prolapse
improper closure of the valve between the left and right ventricular during systole
flutter
rapid but regular atrial or ventricular contractions
thrombotic occlussion
blockage of a vessel by a clot
coronary artery disease
blockage of the arteries surrounding the heart leading to ischemia
hypertensive heart disease
high blood pressure affecting the heart
coarctation of the aorta
congenital narrowing of large artery leading form the heart
congestive heart failure
inablitity of the heart to pump its required amount of blood
tetralogy of Fallot
congenital malformation involving four separate heart defects
raynaud disease
episodes of ischemia with pallor and numberness in fingers and toes caused by a temporary constriction of arteries in the skin
deep vein thrombosis
clot formation in a large vein, usually in the lower limbs
superior vena cava
brings oxygen-poor blood into the heart from the upper parts of the body
coronary arteries
blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
mitral valvulitis
commonly associated with rheumaic fever, an inflammation disease caused by inadequate treatment of a streptococcal infection. An autoimmune reaction occurs, leading to inflammation and damage to heart valves.
valvuoplasty
a ballon-tipped catheter dialates a cardiac valve
sphygmomanometer
instrument to measure blood pressure
interatrial sepum
separates the two upper chambers (atria)
hemangioma
tumor of blood vessels is a benign self involving tumor (swelling ot growth) of endothelial cells, the cells that line blood vessels. Appears first week of life and resolves by age 10, common tumor in infants.
petechiae
small, pinpoint hemorrhages is small 1-2 mm red or purple spot on the body
embolus
floating blood clot or other material is any detached itinerant intravascular mass as carried by the circulation and capsule of clogging arterial capillary beds.
digoxin
drug used to reduce abnormal heart rhythms
ECG electrocardiography
recording of electricity flow through the heart
cardiac catherization
thin flexiable tube is guided into the heart via a vein or artery detects pressures and patterns of blood flow in the heart for diagnosis and treatment of heart conditions
High-density lipoprotein
H.D.L. high blood levels are associated with lower incidence of coronary artery disease C.A.D
thrombolytic therapy
drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis
aneurysm
widening or dilation of a blood vessels
secondary hypertension
the increase in pressure is caused by another associated lesion, such as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or disease of the adrenal glands
essential hypertension
with no indentifiable cause Blood pressure in adults 140/90
pericardiocentisis
is a procedure that uses a needle to remove fluid from the pericardial sac, the tissue that surrounds the heart
palpitations
uncomfortable sensations in the chest from missed heartbeats
pulmonary artery
carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs from the heart
claudication
pain, tension and weakness in the limb after walking has begun
vegetations
lesions that form on heart valves after damage by infection
myocardial infarction
area of necrosis (tissue death in the heart muscle, heart attack)
ischemia
blood is held back from an area of the body
angina
chest pain resulting form insufficient oxygen being supplied to the muscle (ischemia)
endocardium
inner lining of heart a smooth layer of endothelial cells lines the interior of the heart and heart valves
murmur
abdominal heart sounds caused by improper closure of heart valves is murmur
hypercholesterolemia
high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
cyanosis
blusish discoloration of the skin owing to deficeient oxygen in the blood
atheroma
mass of yellowish plaque (fatty substance)
auscultation
listening with stethoscope, listening to internal organs
ventricle
one of two lower chamber of the heart
septum
wall or partition in the heart
diastole
relaxation phase of heartbeat
atrioventricular valves
valves betwen the atria and ventricles
sinoatrial node SA
pacemaker of heart. the current of electricity generated by the pacemaker causes the wall of aorta to contract and force blood into ventricles.
tricuspid valve
located between the right atrium and right ventricle, its has 3 (tri) leaflets or cusps
mitral valve
valve bewteen the left atrium and left ventricle, bicuspid valve
pericardium
double-layered membrane surrounding the heart. visceral pericardium, partietal pericarium, and pericardial cavity
systole
contraction phase of heartbeat
fibrillation
rapid, random, ineffectual and irregular contraction of the heart
myocardium
muscular, middle layer of heart wall its the thickest layer
cardiomypathy
disease condition of the heart muscle
cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart
arteriosclerosis
harding of arteries
atrioventricular node
the AV node immediately sends the excitation wave to a bundle of specialized muscle fibers called atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His
p wave
spread of excitation wave over the atria just before contraction
qrs
spread of excitation wave over the ventricles as the ventricles contract
t wave
electricty recovery and relaxation of ventricles