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60 terms

psychology exam 3 review

STUDY
PLAY
adolescence
the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood
puberty
the period during which the sexual organs mature
growth spurt
starts around 11 for girls, boys taller by 13
primary sexual characteristics
characteristics associated with the development of the organs and structures of the body tha tdirectly relate to reproduction
secondary sexual characteristics
the visible signs of sexual maturity that do not directly involve th sex organs
eatly-maturing boys
tend to be more successful at athletics, more popular and have more positive self-concept; are more atp to have difficulties in school and are more likely to become involved in delinquency and substance abuse
early-maturing girls
early development may make them uncomfortable, may have to endure ridicule from their less mature classmates; sought after more as potential dates, popularity may enhance their self-concept; may not be psychologically or socially ready
late-maturing boys
at a disadvantage in sports, viewed as less attractive, small size effects social life, decline in self-concept; coping with these challenges makes them more assertive and insightfu, more creatively playful
late-maturing girls
may be overlooked in dating at first, have low social status; by 10th grade have more satisfaction with their bodies, more apt to fit the societal ideal
anorexia nervosa
a severe eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior and appearance, which may become skeletal, are out of the ordinary
bulimia
an eating disorder characterized by binges on large quantities of food, followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives
adolescent brain development
more myelination, more neurons, intercoections become richer and more complex, adolescent thinking also becomes more sophisticated; prefrontal cortex not fully mature, no impulse control
formal operational stage
the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly
prepositional thought
reasoning that uses abstract logic in the absences of concrete examples
characteristics of formal operation
able to form and test theories anduse formal reasoning
adolescent egocentrism
a state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed from one's own point of view
personal fable
the view held by some adolescents that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else
imaginary audience
an adolescent's belief that his or her own behavior is a primary focus of others' attentions and concerns
factors affecting school performance
socioeconimic status ( lower SES-lower achievement), ethic and racial differences (black and hispanics-lower achievemen, asian-americans-higher achievement)
drug use by teens
50 percent of which school seniors and almost 20 percent of eighth-graders report using marijuana within the past year; some use drugs for pleasurable experience, others use them to escape from life
alcohol use by teens
binge drinking is a problem on college campuses; 76 percent of high school seniors have had a alcoholic drink in the last year; drink to prove they an, for pleasurable effects, false consensus effect
identity-versus-identity-confusion stage
the period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves
identity achievement
the status of adolescents who commit to a particular identity following a period during which they consider various alternatives
identity foreclosure
the status of adolescents who prematurely commit to an identity without adequately exploring alternatives
moratorium
the status of adolescnts who may have explred various identity alternatives to some degree, but have not yet committed themselves
identity diffusion
the status of adolescents who consider various identity alternatives, but do not commit to one or even consider options
cliques
groups of from 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another
crowds
larger groups than cliques, composed of individuals who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with one another
controversial adolescents
children who are liked by some peers and disliked by others
rejected adolescents
children who are actively disliked, ad whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner
neglected adolescents
children who receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interactions
undersocialized delinquents
adolescent delinquents who are raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision
socialized delinquents
adolescent delinquents who know and subscribe to the norms of society and who are fairly normal psychologically
secondary aging
physical declines brought about by environmental factors or individual behavior
stress
the physical and emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us
primary appraisal
individual's assessment of an event to determin whether its implications are positive, negative, or neutral
secondary appraisal
assessment of whether individual's coping abilities and resources are adequate to overcome the challenge posed by the potential stressor
coping
the effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress
problem-focused coping
atempt to manage a stressful problem or situation by directly changing the situation to make it less stressful
emotion-focused coping
conscious regulation of emotion
social support
assistance and comfort supplied by others
defensive coping
unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation
postformal thought
thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms
dialectical thinking
an interest in and appreciation for argument, counter-argument, and debate
dualistic thinking
reasoning that something is right or wrong; people are good or bad
multiple thinking
not assuming experts have all the answers; assume that own thinking on an issue has validity if their position was well thought-out and rational
relativistic
rather than seeing the world as having absolute standards and values; different societies, cultures, and individuals could have different standards and values, and all of them could be equally valid
achieving stage
the point reached by young adults in which intelligence is applied to specific situations involving the attainment of long-term goals regarding careers, family, and social contributions
happiness
usually derived from feelings of independence, competence, self-esteem, or relating well to other people
intimacy-versus-isolation stage
according to Erikson, the piod of post-adolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close relationships with others
passionate (or romantic) love
a state of powerful absorption in someone
companionate love
the strong affection for those with whom our lives are deeply involved
intimacy component
the component of love that encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness
passion component
the component of love that comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance
decision/commitment component
the third aspect of love that embodies both the initial cognition that one loves another person and the longer-term determination to maintain that love
homogamy
the tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion, and other basic demographic characteristics
marriage gradient
the tendency for men to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller, and lower in status, and women to marry men who are slightly older, larger, and higher in status
Holland's personality type theory
ertain personality types match particularly well with certain careers; people with good match enjoy their careers more
extrinsic motivation
motivation that drives people to obtain tangible rewards, such asney and prestige
intrinsic motivation
motivation tha tcauses people to work for their own enjoyment, not for hte rewards work may bring