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psych test ch 9 learning
Terms in this set (25)
-A person or animal's old response to a prompt or stimulus becomes attached to a new prompt or stimulus
First documented by Ivan Pavlov.
- type of learning
Classical conditioning is most reliable and effective when the conditioned stimulus was presented just before the US.
An event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training.
something that initially had nothing to do with the dog's salivating response to the meat
the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli.
a once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Ex-sound of the tuning fork
classically conditioned response generally occurs gradually
the attempt to understand behavior and mental states in terms of relationships between observable stimuli and observable responses
Classical conditioning is an example of a behaviorist theory.
stimulus or an event that increases the likelihood that the preceding behavior will be repeated
ex: social approval, money, extra privileges.
when something desirable is added after an action.
occurs when something undesirable is removed, or stopped, after an action.
Stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with a primary reinforcer.
Behavior that is reinforced every time it occurs
Behavior that is reinforced intermittently
based on the amount of time that elapses before reinforcement
Fixed Ratio Schedule
reinforcement depends on a specified quantity of responses, such as rewarding every 4th response.
Variable Ratio Strategy
The # of responses needed for a reinforcement changes from one reinforcer to the next. Ex: slot machines
Fixed Interval Schedule
the first correct response after a specified amount of time is reinforced. Ex: tests are often given on a fixed-interval schedule.
the time at which the reinforcement is given changes.
technique in which the desired behavior is "molded" by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior, and then requiring ever-closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward
earned reactions that follow one another in sequence. Each reaction producing the signal for the next
process of influencing behavior by means of unpleasant stimuli.
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs.
training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus. Aka a person's behavior causes an unpleasant event to stop.
training of an organism to respond so as to prevent the occurrence of unpleasant stimulus. Aka: the person's behavior has the effect of preventing an unpleasant situation from happening
Aversive stimuli can produce unwanted side effects such as rage, aggression, and fear.
People can learn to avoid the person delivering the aversive consequences.
Punishment is likely to suppress, but not eliminate, the behavior.
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