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Social Science
Psychology
Experimental Psychology
Vocab review 2
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Terms in this set (31)
operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
Replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
sampling bias
a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample
Population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Correlation
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
Scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
illusonary correlation
...
experiment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
experimental group
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
control group
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
confounding variable
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
dependent variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
descriptive statistics
numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of central tendency and measures of variation.
Histogram
A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data.
Mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
mean
average
Median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
skewed distribution
a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value
Range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
normal curve
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
inferential statistics
numerical data that allow one to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population
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