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Psych 101 (Intro to Psych) Ch. 2 The Biology of Mind and Consciousness
Terms in this set (60)
Everything psychological is also
Our thoughts, feelings, and actions influence ____, ____ ____, and ____.
blood pressure, hormone release, and health.
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.
the scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes.
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
What do psychologists mean when they say the brain is "plastic"?
The brain adapts to new experiences by building new pathways.
What branch of psychology studies the links between behavior and biology?
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Throughout life, new neurons are born and unused ones
-receive messages from other cells.
-neuron extensions that receive messages and conduct them toward the cell body.
-passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
-the neuron extension that sends messages to other neurons or to muscles and glands.
A motor neuron consists of
cell body, dendrites, axon, neural impulse, terminal branches of axon, and myelin sheath
-messages neurons carry are electrical signals, or nerve impulses, called
-a nerve impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
-These impulses travel down axons at different speeds`
glial cells (glia):
-spidery "glue cells"
-They provide nutrients and myelin
-They also guide neural connections and clean up after neurons send messages to one another.
-cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory.
the cell's life support center
action potential; electrical signal traveling down the axon
terminal branches of axon
form junctions with other cells
covers the axons of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
the junction between the axon tip of a sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of a receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.
"All information processing in the brain involves neurons 'talking to' each other at ____."
When a neuron fires an action potential, the information travels through the axon, the dendrites, and the cell body, but not in that order. Place these three structures in the correct order.
dendrites, cell body, axon
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
The neuron fires, sending an impulse down its axon, carrying information to ____ ____. Neurons then need a tiny break before they can fire again.
in neural processing, a brief resting pause that occurs after a neuron has fired; subsequent action potentials cannot occur until the axon returns to its resting state.
a neuron's reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing.
neuron-produced chemicals that cross the synaptic gap to carry messages to other neurons or to muscles and glands.
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron.
How does our nervous system allow us to experience the difference between a slap and a tap on the back?
Stronger stimuli (the slap) cause more neurons to fire and to fire more frequently than happens with weaker stimuli (the tap).
What happens in the synaptic gap?
Neurons send neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) across this tiny space between one neuron's terminal branch and the next neuron's dendrite or cell body.
influence our movement, learning, attention, and feelings of pleasure and reward
make us more or less moody, hungry, sleepy, or aroused.
neurotransmitter: Acetylcholine (ACh)
-enables muscle action, learning, and memory
-with Alzheimers disease, ACh-producing neurons deteriorate
-influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
-Oversupply linked to schizophrenia. Undersupply linked to tremors and decreased mobility in Parkinson's disease.
-affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal
-Undersupply linked to depression. Some drugs that raise serotonin levels are used to treat depression.
-helps control alertness and arousal.
-Undersupply can depress mood.
neurotransmitter: GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
-a major inhibitory neurotransmitter
-undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia
-a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
-oversupply can overstimulate brain, producing migraines or seizures (which is why some people avoid MSG, monosodium glutamate, in food).
-short for endogenous
-neurotransmitters that influence the perception of pain or pleasure.
-oversupply with opiate drugs can suppress that body's natural endorphin supply
-drug that elevates mood and eases pain
-a chemical, such as opium, morphine, or heroin, that depresses neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
-natural, opiate-like transmitters
-produced by the brain
-linked to brain control
-chemical messengers which are endorphins, sertonin, and dopamine
-"slow" chemical communication system;
-a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
-chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands
- travel through the bloodstream
-affect other tissues
-influence growth, reproduction, metabolism and mood
endocrine system consists of
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
central nervous system (CNS)
-brain and spinal cord
-body's decision maker
peripheral nervous system (PNS):
-the sensory and motor neurons connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
-gathers information from other body parts and transmits CNS decisions to the rest of your body.
bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
Information travels in your nervous system through three types of neurons
carry messages from your body's tissues and sensory receptors inward to your spinal cord and brain for processing.
carry instructions from your central nervous system outward to your body's muscles and glands.
neurons within your brain and spinal cord communicate with one another and process information between the sensory input and motor output.
somatic nervous system (aka skeletal nervous system)
-peripheral nervous system division
-monitors sensory input
-triggers motor output
-controls skeletal muscles
autonomic [aw-tuh-NAHM-ik] nervous system (ANS):
-peripheral nervous system division that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic subdivision arouses; its parasympathetic subdivision calms.
-usually it operates on its own (autonomously)
sympathetic nervous system
-fight or flight
-the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system:
-autonomic nervous system subdivision that calms the body, conserving its energy.
-decreases your heartbeat, lowers your blood sugar, and so on
What bodily changes does your ANS (autonomic nervous system) direct before and after you give an important speech?
your ANS' sympathetic division will arouse you. It increases your heartbeat, raises your blood pressure and blood sugar, slows your digestion, and cools you with perspiration. After you give the speech, your ANS' parasympathetic division will reverse these effects.
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