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Lateral (external) rotation

if you stand with bent elbow and reach out with your right arm to grasp something on the right side of your body, your humerus does this motion

abduction of thumb

move thumb away from the plane of the hand so it points anteriorly

zero position

anatomical position


a movement that decreases a joint angle


extreme extension of a joint, beyond the zero position


lowers a body part in the frontal plane


posterior movement of a body part in the transverse plane


a movement in which a bone spins on its longitudinal axis


causing the palm to face posteriorly (downward) and radius to cross the ulna like an X

radial flexion

tilt hand toward thumb


a movement in which the toes are elevated

plantar flexion

movement of the foot so the toes point downward


a movement that tips the soles laterally, away from each other

extension of thumb

straightening the thumb

adduction of thumb

to bring thumb back to touch the base of the index finger

flexion of fingers

curling fingers

extension of fingers

straightening fingers

hyperextension of fingers

not possible

abduction of fingers

spreading fingers apart

adduction of fingers

bringing fingers together so they touch along their surface


a movement that straightens a joint and generally returns a body part to the zero position


the movement of a body part in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body


the movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline


raise arm high enough to cross slightly over the front/back of your head


a movement that raises a body part vertically in the frontal plane


a movement that turns the palm to face anteriorly (upward)

right rotation/left rotation

twisting at the waist/ turning of the head

medial excursion

movement back to the median, zero position

ulnar flexion

tilts the hand toward the little finger


to move the thumb to touch the tip of any of the other 4 fingers


the return to zero position


a foot movement that tips the soles medially, somewhat facing each other

pronation of the foot

a combination of dorsiflexion, eversion, and abduction, the toes are elevated and turned away from the other foot and the sole is tilted away from the other foot

supination of the foot

a combination of plantar flexion, inversion, and adduction, the toes are lowered and turned toward the other foot and the sole is tilted toward it

flexion of thumb

bending the joints so the tip of the thumb is directed toward the palm

hyperextension of the thumb

move thumb away from index finger


more powerful than pronation, do to turn doorknob clockwise


only capable of some joints, as when you stand w/ your ankles crossed, fingers crossed, or shoulder when you stand with your elbows straight and hands clasped below your waist


the anterior movement of a body part in the transverse plane

medial (internal) rotation

to place your palm against your chest, humerus exhibits this motion

lateral flexion

tilting the head or trunk to the right or left of the midline

lateral excursion

side to side movement of the mandible , movement to the left or right of the zero position


one end of an appendage remains fairly stationary while the other end makes a circular motion

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