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First Aid Vitamins
Terms in this set (37)
Vitamin A (Retinol) Function
Antioxidant, constituent of visual pigment (retinal), essential for differentiation of epithelial cells into specialized tissue (pancreatic cells, mucus secreting cells)
Vitamin A (Retinol) Deficiency
Night blindness, dry skin
Vitamin A (Retinol) Excess
Arthralgias, fatigue, headaches, skin changes, sore throat, alopecia. Teratogenic (cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities).
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Function
In thiamine pyrophosphate, a cofactor for:
1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (Glycolysis->TCA cycle)
2. alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (TCA cycle)
3. Transketolase (HMP shunt)
4. Branched chain AA dehydrogenase
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Deficiency
Impaired glucose breakdown->ATP depletion in highly aerobic tissues (1st). Wernicke-Korsakoff and Beriberi
Confusion, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia+memory loss, confabulation, personality change
polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting
polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting, high output cardiac failure, edema
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Function
Cofactor in oxidation and reduction (FADH2, FMN)
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Deficiency
Cheilosis, Corneal vascularization
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Function
Constituent of NAD+, NADP+ (redox reactions). Derived from tryptophan. Synthesis requires Vit B6
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Deficiency
Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia
Hartnup disease (decreased trytophan absorption), malignant carcinoid syndrome (increased trytophan metabolism), INH (decreased Vit B6).
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Excess
Facial flushing (side effect of pharmacologic doses to treat hyperlipidemia).
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenate) Function
Essential component of CoA and fatty acid synthase
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenate) Deficiency
Dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Function
Converted to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor used in transamination, decarboxylase reactions, glycogen phosphorylase, cystathionine synthesis, and heme synthesis. Required for synthesis of niacin from tryptophan.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Deficiency
Convulsions, hyperirritability, peripheral neuropathy, sideroblastic anemias
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Function
Cofactor for homocysteine methyltransferase (homocysteine->methionine) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (methylmalonyl-CoA->succinyl-CoA).
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency
Macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented PMNs, neurologic symptoms due to abnormal myelin.
Folic Acid Function
Converted to THF, a coenzyme for 1-carbon transfer/methylation reactions. Important for synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA.
Folic Acid Deficiency
Macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented PMNs, no neurologic symptoms, neural tube defects in pregnancy.
SAM transfers methyl units
Regeneration of methionine is dependent on B12 and folate.
Required for conversion of NE to Epi.
Cofactor for carboxylation enzymes:
1. Pyruvate Carboxylase (Pyruvate->Oxaloacetate)
2. Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (Acetyl-CoA->Malonyl-CoA)
3. Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase (Propionyl-CoA->Methylmalonyl-CoA)
Dermatitis, alopecia, enteritis.
Caused by ABX use or excessive ingestion of raw eggs.
Vitamin C Function
1. Facilitates iron absorption by keeping iron in the Fe2+ reduced state.
2. Necessary for the hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
3. Necessary for dopamine beta-hydroxylase which converts dopamine to NE.
Vitamin C Deficiency
Scurvy: swollen gums, bruising, anemia, poor wound healing.
Vitamin D Function
Increased intestinal reabsorption of calcium and phosphate, increased bone resorption.
Vitamin D Deficiency
Rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults, hypocalcemic tetany.
Vitamin D Excess
Hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, loss of appetite, stupor. Seen in sarcoidosis (increased activation of vitamin D by epithelial macrophages).
Vitamin E Function
Antioxidant (protects RBCs and membranes from free-radical damage).
Vitamin E Deficiency
Increased fragility of RBCs (hemolytic anemia), muscle weakness, neurodysfunction.
Vitamin K Function
Catalyzes gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on various proteins associated with blood clotting (II, VII, IX, X, Protein C and S).
Vitamin K Deficiency
Neonatal hemorrhage with increased PT and aPTT but normal bleeding times. Can also occur after prolonged use of broad spectrum ABX.
Warfarin is a Vitamin K antagonist.
Essential for the activity of 100+ enzymes. Important in formation of zinc fingers (transcription factor motif).
Impaired wound healing, hypogonadism, decreased adult hair, dysgeusia, anosmia
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