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Terms in this set (41)
How did the hegemons at that time affect state interests?
Interests- interactions and institutions varied. States can cooperate to suppress rebellion, hegemony has collapsed empires, other nations faced bad consequences such as hostility towards economies.
What was the Peace of Westphalia? What are some features of it?
Established sovereignty: states have legal and political supremacy within their territorial borders
States should not interfere in the internal affairs of other countries
Beginning of the modern system of states
Established precedence of peace and a new system of political order in Europe based upon the concepts of co-existing sovereign states- recognition of another state's sovereignty.
A Series of treaties signed in Westphalia in 1648 ending the thirty years war
Who are some domestic groups that influence the likelihood of a state going to war?
The president, non political groups, military, bureaucratic organizations, and the public.
What is the difference, both in definition and resolving the problem, between interstate and civil wars?
Interstate wars- at least 2 sovereign states fighting. Both states exist after the war and they both come to peace, change isn't required
Civil wars-Civil wars can "spread" to neighboring countries, Other states may intervene in the conflict, Refugee flows from civil wars lead to the movement of people to other states. Solving civil wars involves International efforts to end civil wars: bring combatants to the negotiating table to resolve conflict, Third parties help combatants overcome commitment problems•guaranteeing the safety of demobilized rebels•creating institutions for the peaceful resolution of disputes•Monitor and enforce ceasefire agreements•Assumes reliability of third party. ----wars that are against the government and not state internal group
Why are terrorists considered rational?
Terrorists are strategic•choose targets, respond to risk, and adjust to counterterrorist efforts in rational ways•Even "random" terrorist attacks may be part of a general strategy•Terrorists deliberately instill fear into a target population•Random selections make it harder for the population to avoid and adjust to terrorist attacks
What are the strategies of terrorism?
Coercion-Induces policy change by imposing costs on the target•threat of these costs and future attacks lead to policy change by target
Provocation- Attacking to provoke a response from government, Disproportionate response from the state may cause sympathetic audiences to radicalize and increase support for terrorists
Spoiling- Terrorists may try to "spoil" a potential peace deal, makes a target state believe that the moderate leadership is not sincere about making peace.
outbidding-A competitive dynamic, attack a target simply to increase support for the group within the home population
When does bargaining work between terrorists?
lack of credibility prevents an acceptable bargaining range (demands often to excessive and there is no way of predicting if bargaining will successfully satisfy)
What does it mean when terrorists are extremists?
Terrorists are extremists. They are politically weak relative to the demands they makeNot likely to attain their goals via standard political processesUse alternative means (violence against civilians/non-military targets) to achieve their goals
What are the trends of these types interstate and civil wars overtime?
Civil wars are becoming more frequent while interstate wars are becoming less frequent.
What are the two types of humanitarian interventions?
Peacekeeping and peace enforcement
Why is the UN considered a failure in Bosnia and Rwanda?
They did little to stop the ongoing fighting even though there were massacres going on
How do collective security organizations influence state behavior?
It is like an insurance system in which all the nations are bound to protect the victim of an aggression or war by neutralizing the aggression or war against the victim. Meaning states are less likely to engage in conflict with fear of fighting many different states at once
What are collective security organizations?
broad-based institutions that promote peace and security among their members
With respect to alliances, what is bandwagoning and balancing?
a strategy in which states join forces with the stronger sides in conflict, balancing is when a state prevents an aggressor from upsetting the balance of power
What makes the collective action easier/harder to overcome?
Starting an insurgency
Create a commonality among a group can bring people together
Enforcement and punishment mechanisms facilitated by third party organizations not affected by results of the collective action problem, this allows for the punishment of free riders
What is the collective action problem?
individuals would be better off cooperating but fail to do so due to conflicting interests between individuals that discourages joint action
According to the bargaining model, when do states cooperate/come to an agreement?
When they know the outcome of the bargaining and do not want to fight because war is costly.
According to the bargaining model, when do states fight wars?
A disagreement on the allocation of goods/resources cause states to fight wars
When does cooperation happen/more likely according to (neo)realism, (neo)liberalism, and constructivism?
Realism- thinks cooperation is impossible in an anarchic world
Neorealism- thinks cooperation is limited because states may have relative gain
Liberalism- international institutions affect cooperation; increasing interdependence while leading to less conflict
Neoliberalism- says that even in an anarchic world cooperation can emerge through building mutual trust and building norms, regimes and institutions
Constructivism- explains identity formation, cooperation/conflict, and relationships (mostly conflict--depends on relative comparability of identities between states: A+A=coop. Vs. B+B=coop. But A+B=conflict)
What are core assumptions and mechanisms of (neo)realism, (neo)liberalism, and constructivism?
Realism- states are the only actors and operate in a state of anarchy
Neorealism- states are the only actors, states are rational, states operate in a state of anarchy
Liberalism- primary societal actors are states, individuals, private groups, transitional organizations
Neoliberalism- States are actors and are in anarchy
Constructivism- more than just states are actors, they might not be rational all the time
What effect does nuclear weapons have on state interests and behavior?
promotes more peace because of a higher threat of war and high casualties
What is sovereignty?
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies
How does anarchy influence state behavior?
States can feel as if they can do what they want without supreme authority- more conflict
What is anarchy in the global system?
anarchy is the idea that the world lacks any supreme authority or sovereign. In an anarchic state, there is no hierarchically superior, coercive power that can resolve disputes, enforce law, or order the system of international politics.
What international institutions governed each time period?
Who were the hegemon(s) during each time period?
(see chart created)
How do leaders shape the likelihood of war?
Rally effect and diversionary incentives
What issues are observed with alliances?
What are alliances?
a union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or organizations.
What is diversionary conflict?
a war instigated by a country's leader in order to distract its population from their own domestic dispute.
What is the rally effect?
the tendency of public support for a leader to increase during a crisis
How do domestic groups become powerful to influence state behavior?
Public support after big events, vote someone into power, prointervention/pro nonintervention, joining an interest group or lobbying group to work directly on the problem but you must first overcome the collective action problem in order to influence state behavior and create a collection of resources.
What are some implications of the democratic peace theory?
We can believe that democracies have common interests so we can assume that democratic countries and states would naturally cooperate with each other
What is the democratic peace theory?
Democratic States are less likely to engage in conflict with other democratic states.
Democracies are more open therefore more likely for there to be more peace
What is the commitment problem?
arises when two actors would be better off in the present by committing themselves to a cooperative relationship in the future.
What is credibility in international relations?
believability, credible threat is how much the recipient believes that the threat is serious
What are audience costs?
The penalty leaders face with constituents when a foreign policy (like a war) goes poorly
How do states demonstrate resolve?
By making statements and following through with statements, calling on alliance commitments, following through on threats by mobilizing military
What is the security dilemma?
a situation under anarchy where actions by a state are meant to heighten their security which also leads to other states doing the same thing and it increases tensions leading to conflict
How does the bargaining model explain when war happens?
The bargaining model of war argues that because war is costly, there exists a bargaining range or set of mutual peaceful deals acceptable to both parties that is preferable to war. War occurs when bargaining fails and states offer deals outside this bargaining range.
How do international institutions help resolve interstate and civil wars?
Enforcement mechanisms in place international institutions will have an easier time resolving the situation versus civil wars if a solution must be come to there will need to be a change in order to ensure lasting peace
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