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20. The EU
Terms in this set (101)
constitutional Treaty of the EU
Where can the objectives of the EU be found?
1. To promote peace and well-being of people living in the area
2. Social and economic progress
3. establish an area of freedom
The first 3 objectives of the EU
4. Security and justice
5. Enhance the environment of europe and the world
6. Secure and defend the Union
The second 3 objectives of the EU
1. Promoting scientific and technological advance
2. The protection of children's rights
3. Combating discrimination
4. Solidarity between generations
The European Coal and Steek Community was founded
Belg, germ, fr, it, lux, nether
Six successive enlargements followed
How has the EU expanded since its creation?
Denmark, Ireland, UK
Greece became a member state
Fourth enlargement phase : Austria, Finnland, Sveden
Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Lithuania, Hungary and 5 other countries joined
In south-east Europe. The ones that have once belonged to Yugoslavia and Turkey.
Where are candidate countries?
others have been promised the prospect of EU membership as soon as they are ready
The Eu has started ... with candidate countries
EU standards and norms concerning political, legal and technical issues + their citizens will also have to support the accession
These countries have to meet
A set of criteria was established at the Copenhagen European Council summit
1. Stable institutions that guarantee democracy
2. Rule of law
3. Human rights and respect for and protection of minorities
4. Functioning market economy
5. The ability to assume the obligations of membership
expansion policy, Copenhagen Criteria
The structure of the Union
Best approach to the EU's policy
The EU is divided into
European Community. The decisions are made with the agreement of both the EU Council and the European Parliament.
Foreign and security policy
policy on judical cooperation in criminal matters
the decision-making policy is based on
ORIGINAL AIMS HAVE NOT BEEN FULLY MET SINCE THE FREE MOVEMENT OF LABOUR IS HINDERED IN LANGUAGE BARRIERS AND the fact that all member countries are not equally developed.
Most criticism of the S.E.M. is based on the fact that
to the development and prosperity of the knowledge society and economy
The promotion of education is essetnial
all forms of cooperation between countries within and outside the Union
The EU finds promoting educational fields crucial and supports
global competition is becoming more intense in all sectors
Most member states are facing challenges concerning education particularly because
promoting lifelong learning and mobility
strategic objectives of the EU
aging society and skill deficits of the workforce
Most EU countries have to take urgent measures because of
international cooperation programmes in tertiary education e.g.: Tempus and Erasmus
The EU has implemented
there are at least 4 main issues that make the implementation of this aim problematic.
Though the EU strives to ensure the free movement of people within its borders,
recognition of qualifications. People are often expected to attend extensive training to be eligible for work.
One of the largest barriers to finding employment in another member state is
the portability of pension rights, unemployment and health benefits, other aspects of social security.
Another major barrier of the free movement of people in the EU is
the diversity of languages spoken in the EU. Employers are not allowed to discriminate against potential employers on the basis of nationality, though they may require employees to be fluent in language spoken in the course of their work.
The third large hindrance stems from
Furthermore, some states have imposed curbs on people from new member countries.
Employers may require employees to be fluent in language spoken in the course of their work.
is fairly easy for its citizens, as long as they carry the necessary documents. they may be required to prove their identity.
Travelling in the EU
there are no border controls within most EU countries.
Since they have signed the Schengen Agreement
you can get free or reduced-cost healthcare
As an EU citizen if you become ill during a temporary visit to any EU country
is valid throughout the EU
A valid driving license issued in an EU country
will automatically provide the minimum cover required by law too.
Wherever you're travelling in the EU your car insurance policy
It refers to the common monetary policy which is officially known as the Economic and Monetary Union. It's an agreement among the participating members to adopt a single hard currency and monetary system.
What is the European Monetary Union?
to integrate the economies of EU countries more effectively and to make them avoid excessive budget deficits.
The purpose of EMU is
Maastruch Treaty. It was signed in 1992. Under the terms of the Treaty a new monetray institution was also founded in Frankfurt.
The founding document of the EMU
A monetary institution founded in Frankfurt. Sets monetary policy for the EMU.
European Central Bank
The use of common currency eliminates currency exchange fees. Companies can easily compare prices with their competitors, which may encourage competition and lower prices for consumers.
Conversion to a single currency provides a number of advantages
guarantees price stability, stimulates economic growth, may encourage investment and reduce unemployment rates in the participating member states.
Being in the Euro area
strenghtens macroeconomic stability since it helps to lower and control inflation.
Moreover, the introduction of the Euro
but only when their economies are ready.
All countries are expected to introduce the Euro,
Maastricht criteria since they were set in the Maastricht Treaty.
A member state has to meet four convergence criteria, commonly known as the
price stability, goverment finance, exchange rate, long-term interest rates
The 4 Maastricht criteria are
must not be more than 1,5% higher that that of the 3 best-performing member states of the EU.
The rate of inflation
It costs a huge amount of money to produce the new currency and make vending machines.
Technical issues of the Eurozone
the loss of control of monetary policy.
Some economists fear that introducing the Eurozone might mean
it might cause problems in times of economic downturn.
Another reason for misgivings about joining the Eurozone is that
the initiation and formulation of policies as well as monitoring their implementation, and the management of European programmes.
The European Commission is responsible for a wide range of functions within the EU
One of the seven institutions of the Union. It defines the general political direction and priorities of the EU.
The European Council
The Heads of State or Government of the Member States, together with its President and the President of Commission.
The European Council consists of
was designed to represent the member states and has both executive and legislative functions in the EU system of governance.
The Council of the EU
each country is represented by the minister responsible for that field, such as foreign affairs, finance, social affairs, transport, and, agricluture
Depending on the issue on the agenda,
six months by each member state on a rotational basis.
The presidency of the council is held for
the citizens of the Union to represent their interests.
The EP is elected by
every five years, every EU citizen is entitled to vote, and to stand as a candidate regardless of where they live in the EU.
Elections are held
Authority that transcends national borders.
to go beyond
the right to vote
supranational institution whose members are ddemocratically elected by direct universal suffrage.
The Euan Parliament is the only
do not sit in national blocks, but in Europe-wide political groups.
The members of the E.P.
co-legislator, has budgetary powers and exercises democratic controls over all the European institutions. Also has major supervisory powers over the activities of the EU.
Today the E.P. us firmly established as a
a law or set of laws
for criminals to operate transnationally.
The elimination of border controls within the EU has also made it easier
the EU is striving to establish a single area of justice. The aim is to ensure that cross-border crimes are dealt with more efficiently and that individuals have their rights guaranteed equally everywhere in the EU.
In order to face the challenge of international crime
the supreme judicial institution of the Union. It was based in Luxembourg.
The Court of Justice
member states and institutions do what the law requires
legislation is interpreted and applied in the same way in all EU countries.
The Court of Justice makes sure that
settle legal disputes between EU member states, institutions, buisnesses, individuals.
The court has the power to
was created to help the COJ cope with the large number of cases brought before it.
The Court of First Instance/General Court
giving rulings on certain kinds of case, particularly actions brought by private individuals, and cases relating to competition law.
The General Court/Court of First Instance is responsible for
The central bank for EU's central currency. The sole issuer of banknotes and bank reserves. It's the monopoly supplier of the monetary base.
The European Central Bank
maintain the purchasing power of the Euro
guarantee price stability in the Euro area
The main task of the European Central Bank is to
keeping inflation low
supporting the economic policies of the EU
The ECB is also responsible for
maintaining a high rate of employment and a sustainable economic growth.
The economic policies of the EU include
set the conditions at which banks borrow from the central bank.
The monopoly of the central bank enables it to
paying part of the costs by the government
A situation in which quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded (extra)
a system of subsides and programmes, and represents a large part of the EU's budget.
The Common Agricultural Policy is
assistance linket to compliance with broader objectives in the areas of farm hygiene and food safety
One main focus of the CAP is
animal health and welfare
preservation of traditional rural landscapes
bird and wildlife conservation
Other main focuses of the CAP
narrow the development inequalities among regions within the area.
The regional policy of the EU is intended to
Structural Fund, Cohesion Fund
Financial instruments of the RP
a substainal part of the EU budget
The financial instruments of the EU account for
regional development through actions including developing infrastructure and telecommunications,
developing human resources and financing research and development
The financial instruments of the EU are used to support
help reinforce economic and social cohension by redressing regional imbalances
The objective of the European Regional Development Fund is to
supporting the development and structural adjustment of regional economies
the conversion of declining industrial regions
encouraging the creation of sustainable employment
The objectives of the ERDF are achieved by
research and technological development
innovation and entrepreneurship
tourism and energy
Operational programmes in the member states help modernise and diversify regional economic structures focusing on these fields
to allow people to travel without having their passports checked at international borders
The main aim of the Schengen Agreement is
involve improving cooperation and coordination between the police and the judical authorities in order to safeguard internal security and, in particular, to fight organised crime.
The Schengen Information System was set up to
a complex database used by authorities of the Schengen member countries to exchange data on certain categories of people and goods.
The Schengen Information System is
promotes multilingualism and supports the idea of every EU citizen speaking at least two foreign langauges in addition to their mother tounge.
The EU's language policy
highly important to promote the free mobility of EU citizens.
Focusing on foreign languages is
migrants to demostrate proficiency in the language of the host country before granting residence, work permits or citizenship. (Common European Framework of Reference for Langauges)
A growing number of countries now require
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