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Ch. 12 Urinary System Uro/genital System Final Review
Terms in this set (117)
to bind together
hyster/o-, metr/o-, uter/o-
tube ("Fallopian or Uterine")
glans penis or clitoris
spermatic cord or vas deferens
testes or gonad
one who lies before
1. Renal Corpuscle
2. Tiny Tubules: pair of convoluted
3. Tiny Tubules: pair of collecting (henle)
4. 8 to 18 pyramids that conduct urine through collecting ducts or tubules into the kidney/pelvis
1. Capillary structures called Glomeruli which filter out bacteria, blood cells, salts, chemicals, and fluids.
2. They have cells that pass octopus-like (podo/cytes) into Bowman's capsule reabsorbing and filtering substances.
1. Most often used when urethral stricture (contraction) or infiltration is suspected.
2. Used to detect urethr/itis or lesions present from STIs or cancer, or to detect presence of stones in ureter.
3. Occasionally, intra-urethral surgical techniques are performed with this type of endoscope.
4. Also used for vaginal exams in infants.
5. It has a cannula (tube) with an obturator (opening and closing device) to allow air or water in to dilate body structure. It also has a lighting system and a telescope attached to system.
6. Urethral an/esthetic, penis clamps (for males) disinfectant, and gloves are used during exam,
1. Viewing of urinary system (bladder) with an endoscope (cystoscope) inserted into urethra.
2. Sedatives or anesthetics are use with patient in lithotomy or back position.
3. Air or water distention is used to assist in biopsy.
4. Follow-up is important to detect infections or trauma.
5. Sonogram diagnosis is also performed.
cyst/itis and cyst/ec/tom/y
1. A cyst is any closed sac or pouch with a defined wall that contains fluid or solid matter.
2. Cystitis is inflammation of gallbladder or urinary bladder usually secondary to an infection. It may be acute or chronic with frequent pain.
3. Py/uria (pus in urine) can be seen.
4. Antibiotics are used for treatment.
bladder or sac
bladder or sac
1. Crushing of calculi in kidney and urinary tract with noninvasive methods (high energy shock wave or a pulsed dye laser).
2. Skin contusions were caused by litho/tripsy shock waves,
*-osis - condition
1. Collection of urine in renal pelvis.
2. Kidney usually shuts down or fails.
3. Distension of kidney causes a cyst to form, and nephron atrophy.
4. Surgery is usually required to correct obstruction or problem.
not/contained or retained
*in - not, in, into, inside
*continere - retain
1. Inability to retain feces, urine, or semen.
2. Often caused by loss of sphincter control, cerebral disorders, brain and spinal cord lesions, disease factors, and psychological factors.
3. Stress of laughing, coughing, sneezing, lifting, or sudden movement may cause this discharge.
4. Partial incontinence is often seen in young children.
5. En/uresis (enourein means to urinate) is in/voluntary urination, especially nocturnal bed-wetting.
6. May be complete or partial, depending on pathological, psychological, or physical condition.
thread/condition or state
1. Process of the cell forming a thread-like double helix strand of DNA. It divides, forming a new double helix strand of 23 pairs of chromosomes (colored/bodies).
2. Mei/osis ("diminutive or lesser"/"condition or state") is the reduction/division process in chromosomes in egg and sperm. It reduces egg and sperm chromosome number to 23 (not pairs).
*hydro - water
*kele - tumor, hernia
1. Accumulation of serous fluid in a sac-like cavity or serous tumors.
2. 11 types with acute form being the most common. Acute cases occur suddenly between ages 2 and 5. It is usually caused by inflammation of epididymis or testis.
3. Causes include filariasis, congenital, or peritoneal fluid leakage.
1. Cystic swelling of epididymis and occasionally of rete testis (net:gonad) in testis or gonad.
2. Contains spermatozoa, or sperm.
3. Usually painless and requires no treatment, unless complications develop.
4. Rare in children.
scrotal varicose veins/protruding
1. Dilation or enlargement of pampiniform venous complex of spermatic cord. It forms a soft, spongy, elastic swelling that often causes pain.
2. Most common in males between 15 and 30 years of age. It affects left spermatic cord more often than right.
3. Usually more pronounced and painful in standing position.
4. During diagnosis the testicle is gently squeezed to determine if swollen veins feel like nightcrawlers.
5. Positive diagnosis through palpation of the twisted, engorged veins.
seed producer refers/twisting
1. Axial rotation of spermatic cord that cuts off blood supply to testes, epididymis, etc.
2. If occurs more than 6 hours, can cause gangrene.
3. Partial loss of blood flow can result in atrophy of structures.
4. Some are predisposed because of lack of connective tissue.
5. Trauma is often cause of torsion. Swelling often adds to the problems associated with this condition.
6. It occurs most often on the right side.
7. Often seen during first year of life and during puberty on left side.
8. Surgery within 5 hours of symptom onset is required to save the testes.
*orchidion - testicle
*-itis - inflamed
1. Orchid/itis (same condition) is characterized by swelling (tumor), pain (dolor), fever (calor), rubor (redness), and tissue atrophy. Male may also experience chills, gangrene, vomiting, hiccups, and/or delirium.
2. Patient is confined to bed for 8 days and testes is immobilized. Ice bags are used in an effort to lower area body temperature.
3. Usually caused by mumps, TB, syphilis, or other STIs, such as gonorrhea.
4. Inflammation or trauma any place in the body can cause this condition.
hidden/gonad or testi/state
1. Male gonads or testes produce spermatozoa and testosterone.
2. Unilateral and bilateral crypt/orchid/ism and an/orchid/ism.
3. Leads to abnormal sperm and hormone production in adult male.
4. May be treated surgically to bring down and affix testicle or testicles to scrotum, a procedure called orchidopexy.
5. Treated with testosterone replacement therapy and possibly prosthetic testicle implants.
testi; testis; testes; testis; testos
gonad or seed
testis or gonad
one who lies before/acorn
1. Surrounds neck of bladder and highest part of urethra.
2. Produces a secretion that liquefies coagulated semen.
3. Firm structure about the size of a chestnut, composed of muscular and glandular tissue.
4. Found in pelvis below symphysis pubis and ventral of rectum.
5. Digital exams are conducted by inserting a covered finger into rectum to palpate this gland for signs of cancer.
6. A superior depression is found where two ejaculatory ducts attach from seminal vesicles. It divides the back of gland into a middle lobe and large lower portion.
7. Milky white secretion consists of alkaline phosphate, citric acid, and proteolytic enzymes.
8. It contracts during orgasm and assists in ejaculation of seminal fluid from male urethra.
9. Prostat/ec/tom/y is removal of this gland, usually because of cancer.
10. Prostato/megaly or enlargement usually requires surgery - signs of prostate cancer.
11. PSA Test (Prostate Specific Antigen Test) is a protein that may be elevated in patients with cancer.
12. Reading of 4.0 to 15.0 requires a doctor's office visit. Normal readings are around 1.5.
13. Transurethral Resection (TUR) is a surgical procedure through urethra, such as in transurethral prostatectomy. A resectoscope is inserted and through it, shavings of tissue are cut off at bladder opening.
little witness/refers: crab-like/tumor
1. Testis means "witness," with testicle being the diminutive form of testis.
2. Enlargement of gonad, aching, lump(s), and a heavy feeling. Treatment includes castration, drugs, or radiation.
3. Types: (a.) Seminoma; (b.) teratoma; (c.) embryonic; and (d.) chorio/carcinoma
4. Higher risk: 15 to 34 Y/O; crypt/orchidism; congenital abnormalities; toxin exposure; zinc; and DES (diethylstilbestrol) use by mother.
6. Develops in the testes seminiferous tubes.
1. Usually occurs in only one teste, but both testes should be examined each month.
2. TSE has 4 steps:
A. Palpating testes after a warm shower or bath to relax skin of sac or scrotum.
B. View scrotal skin and testes in a mirror to detect swellings or nodes.
C. Place fingers under teste with thumb on top and roll gently looking for lumps or changes from previous month.
D. Feel coiled structure on top of teste. There is normally a small, painless, pea-sized lump in front and to side of epididymis.
1. Large monstrous tumor composed of different kinds of tissue not normally found in teste.
2. A terat/olog/ist is a medical specialist that studies cause and effect of congenital abnormalities and mal/formations in humans.
3. Tumor responds well to treatment if diagnosed early.
1. Stenosis or narrowing of prepuce orifice so that it cannot be pushed backward over glans penis.
2. Infections are usual cause. Circumcision can be a treatment, but steroid gels and ointments can be used as a less invasive alternative.
3. Some females experience a condition called phimosis vaginalis (muzzled: vagina). This is the congenital narrowing or closure of vaginal orifice. Treatment is surgical repair of opening.
4. Para/phimosis is inability to reposition foreskin after it has been retracted over Glans Penis.
5. Usually caused by infections or an abnormally narrow foreskin. It can result in diminished blood flow to tissues and result in gangrene. Treatment is manual reduction of foreskin to its natural position. Circumcision may be performed as a last resort measure.
*spadon - a ripping or tear
1. Congenital defect in urethra that opens on to dorsum of penis above glans penis.
2. Treatment involves surgical restructuring of genital region to permit normal urination.
3. In women it is the urethra opening by separation of labia minora and fissure of glans clitoris.
4. Rarely seen in females.
1. Process of cutting vas deferens (vessel/away carry) so sperm cannot be carried up and out of male reproductive system.
2. Usually a clipping of vessel is removed and ends are burnt or cauterized.
3. In women the process or sterilization is called tubal ligation.
4. Like in the male the fallopian tubes are either cauterized, ligated, clamped, excised, and/or crushed in abdomen.
tube or canal/binding or tying
- act of
glans penis or glans clitoris
fallopian (uterine) tube
hystero-, metro-, utero-
"producing FSH and LH"
seed or seed producer: ovaries
Internal Reproductive Structures: Uterus
1. Hollow and pear-shaped structure that is lined with a mucous membrane called the endometrium.
2. Each month the myometrium, a muscular wall in uterus, contracts to break loose endometrial lining.
3. Contains embryo and fetus.
embryo (early); fetus (young)
1. Embryo means early.
2. First week of development is called the "zygote and morula phase" and progresses from fertilized ovum to blasto/cyst that will develop germ layers.
3. Embryonic stage is considered weeks 2 to 8.
4. The early embryonic germ layers are not human in appearance and give rise to our body parts.
5. Fetus or fetos means young.
6. Fetus is considered to exist from the 8th week to the 9th month.
7. If implantation and development of egg are located outside an ideal location in uterus, this is called an ectopic pregnancy.
75 Days (2.5 months)
1. Embryo is the size and weight of a hen's egg. Heart is active, thin skin tissue, makes faces, moves mouth, moves legs and arms, and it suck in amniotic fluid to practice feeding.
2. Placenta roots are deep into uterus with tube-like tree limb branches.
3. Umbilical cord goes into placenta sleeve.
150 Days (5th month)
1. Distinct movement is felt from 10" fetus. It punches, flips, kicks. It has a creamy coat that prevents wrinkling. Its fingers play and are sucked, causing hiccups. It fits tight inside uterus, with knees and chin tucked. It sleeps most of the time. It also responds to mother's voice with moves. It jumps at loud sounds.
2. At 7 months eyes open, and it can see the glow of lights shone on mother's body.
3. Baby is now gaining weight, and uterus is practicing contractions.
4. At maturity, 257-287 days: amniotic sac breaks, vagina spreads, head starts protruding. Mother pushes hard to give birth and baby's lungs inflate.
desire to bring forth/process of
*parto- and -tocio mean birth
*Fewer than 37 weeks = premature
*Longer than 41 weeks = post mature
to bear or separate/process
1. Cord is cut and drops off about day 7.
2. Newborn sees colors and light, hears sounds, and can clearly see curves and faces that are close. Far away objects are blurred and fuzzy.
3. Newborn can feel touch. If baby is cradled next to mother's breast, it will turn its head automatically and begin to suckle.
4. Dys/tocia (difficult/birth or birthing) is any type of birth that shows signs of trouble.
5. Etiology: fetus or female pelvic size
out/location/refers: with child
*ekto - outside or away from
*topos - location or displacement
*praegnans - pregnancy
1. AKA cyesis (kyesis) or being gravid (gravida or heavy).
2. Where fertilized ovum implants itself outside uterus. Ex include abdominal, fallopian tube, cervical, and ovarian.
3. Tenderness of affected side, mother's weakened pulse, and possible severe hemorrhaging that causes death.
4. Difficult to D.D. from appendic/itis, col/itis, salping/itis, and an ovarian cyst.
5. Surgery is always required in a tubal ectopic pregnancy.
1. Human fetus from 3rd month gestation to birth - 9 MO.
2. Germ layer tissue is: Endo-, Meso-, or Ecto/dermal
3. Aborior means to have a miscarriage. This is to expel an embryo or fetus prior to viability (able to live on its own: weeks 22 to 28).
lamb's caul/puncture to remove fluid
1. Obstetric procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is removed for lab analysis.
2. Performed between week 14 and 18 gestation.
3. Performed to detect baby abnormalities.
4. Some pregnancy problems and defects include blood diseases, physical defects, perforated vessel, abnormalities of placenta or umbilical cord, premature labor, trauma, and other fetal defects. Used to detect Tay-Sachs disease, lung maturity, Down Syndrome, and to measure creatinine levels.
*ov-, ovar-, ova-, ovari/o, oophor/o- (egg or egg producer)
1. Two almond-shaped female gonads.
2. Located next to uterus attached to utero-ovarian ligament and attached posterior by suspensory ligament.
3. Surface is smooth early in life and later becomes pitted from corpus lutea (body: yellow) atrophy.
4. Ovary function is to produce eggs and hormones
5. These hormones produce secondary sex characteristics, which include preparing uterus for pregnancy each month; libido development; long bone growth; development of breast; and fat deposition in various body parts.
1. Oval, spongy structure in a mammal's uterus that delivers nourishment to fetus.
2. When expelled following parturition it is referred to as afterbirth.
3. Produces gonado/tropin hormones, which give a positive result for a urine pregnancy test.
4. Estrogen and progesterone are also secreted by placenta.
5. Placenta previa literally means the (cake/before). It detaches from uterine wall prematurely. Sometimes caused by a weak attachment that is too low in uterus or over fallopian tube.
6. Also be caused by straining or can be from infections.
Breech Birth Presentation
brech means buttocks; burdhr means the act of being born
1. Abnormal delivery where buttocks as well as feet present themselves at cervix rather than head.
2. Frank breech birth is when the buttocks are presented alone with legs against face.
3. Parturition and tocia mean birth.
4. Cyesis and gravida mean pregnancy.
pelvic floor or vulva/to cut/procedure
*epision - pubic or perineum region
*-otomy - to cut into/process
1. Incision of perineum during second stage of labor to avoid lacerations of perineum and to aid in delivery.
2. Male and female perineum
3. There are first to fourth degree tears that occur in childbirth: superficial tearing of tissues to tearing of anal sphincters.
*-ectomy - to excise
1. Types: Total (uterus and cervix removed), radical (all reproductive internal structures, lymph vessels and nodes in area are removed), or partial (only part of uterus is removed).
2. These body structures are surgically removed through the abdominal wall or vagina.
3. Surgical reasons: malignant or benign tumors, fibroids, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID), or because of severe uterine bleeding.
4. Complications: bleeding and thrombophlebitis.
oviducts or uterine tubes
1.Tube runs from uterus laterally and terminates near ovary. It conducts the egg which is usually fertilized in upper 1/3 of tube.
2. Each tube is approx. 4" long and 1/4" in diameter.
3. Mucosa has ciliated and nonciliated cells. The ciliated cells help move egg down to uterus.
*salpinx - tube
*-itis - inflamed
1. Either acute, subacute, or chronic
2. Causative organisms include gonococcus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, TB bacillus, and E. Coli
pelvic inflammatory disorder
infections ascending from the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and broad ligament.
colpo-, vagino- sheath
1. Canal leading from labia internally to uterus mouth orifice called cervix.
2. Rugae and membranous mucosa line vagina and secrete a glycogenous (sweet or sugary) substance.
3. Lacto/bacilli bacteria that line this area help maintain acidity of vagina by producing lactic acid from mucosal membrane glycogen. It inhibits growth of most pathogenic organisms.
colpo/cele or colpo/ptosis
1. Vaginal hernia, rupturing, or protrusion. Colpoptosis is vagina falling out.
2. Treatment is usually surgery.
hystero/salpingo/graph/y and D & C
uterus/uterine tube, oviducts, or Fallopian Tubes/process of recording
1. Determines size, shape, and position of non-pregnant female structures.
2. Show tumors, polyps, fistulas, and obstructions like tube scarring.
3. Couples with difficulty conceiving ask for this test.
dilation and curettage (D&C)
abortion or tissue sample
1. Sharp or sudden onset of an inflammation of breast. It is an intense, severe inflammation that is short-term in duration. Often seen with breast feeding.
2. Staph or strep usually causes inflammation during the first two months of lactation.
3. Mothers have pain, swelling, redness, swollen lymph glands, fever, and malaise. If untreated, abscesses develop.
4. Tx: antibiotics, analgesics, rest, and warm bath soakings.
5. Germs enter nipple through abrasions and cracks.
6. Infection begins in one lobule and spreads to other lobes.
change from/stop; spreading
1. Removes part or all of the breast.
2. Counseling should include discussion of emotions and use of prostheses.
3. Lumpectomy is removal of a tumor from the breast.
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