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Bio 111: Ch 6: Energy and enzyme
Terms in this set (36)
What is energy?
the ability to do work or bring about a change
Why do cells and organisms need a constant supply of energy?
to maintain organization and carry out activities
List and describe the forms of energy
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.
Potential energy is stored energy.
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
First law: law of conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be changed from one form to another.
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
Second law: Energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of usable energy
-- Energy transformation makes the universe less organized and more disordered
What is required to keep cells organized and stable?
a constant input of energy
What is a Chemical Reaction?
The breaking or making of chemical bonds
What is metabolism?
is the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell as well,energy is either consumed or released
What is the difference between Catabolism and anabolism?
Breaking down of molecules
Generates ATP vs
Building up of molecules
What are reactants?
Substances that participate in reactions
What are products?
Substances that form as a result of a reaction
What is free energy (g)?
the energy stored in molecules
What are Exergonic reactions
ones where energy is released (∆G is negative) Ex: cellular respiration
* Exergonic reaction will go forward according to the law of thermodynamics
what is Endergonic reactions
ones that energy is stored
(∆G is positive) Ex: photosynthesis
* require an input of energy
What is ATP?
Energy carrier for Cells between exergonic and
What is the Structure of ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate)
ATP is a nucleotide that is composed of:
Adenine (a nitrogen-containing base)
Ribose (a 5-carbon sugar)
Three phosphate groups
ATP is a "high energy" compound because a phosphate group can easily be removed.
What is the function of ATP
Chemical work: macromolecule synthesis
Transport work: pump substances across plasma membrane
Mechanical work: muscle contraction
What are metabolic passageways?
are a series of linked reactions.
These begin with a specific reactant and produce an end product
Explain the metabolic passageway
Many specific steps, each step has a specific enzyme
In a organized, structured manner
One product can be the reactant for the next step
Define an enzyme
Is a protein that functions to speed a chemical reaction
What is Energy of Activation (Ea)
the energy that must be added to cause molecules to react with one another.
The energy of activation must be overcome for a reaction to occur.
How do enzymes function?
Enzyme binds substrate to form a complex
The substrate and enzyme complex facilitates the reaction to occur
Most enzyme does not change the end results of a reaction
What all affects enzymatic speed?
Temperature and pH
Explain Substrate Concentration on enzymatic reaction
Enzyme activity increases as substrate concentration increases because there are more collisions between substrate and enzyme
Explain the Temperature on enzymatic reaction
Enzyme activity increase as temperature rises
Higher temperatures cause more effective collisions between enzymes and substrates
High temperatures may denature an enzyme, inhibiting its ability to bind to substrates
Explain pH on enzymatic reactions
Enzyme structure is pH dependent
Extremes of pH can denature an enzyme by altering its structure
Explain Enzyme acivation
Cell regulates metabolism by regulating which enzymes are active
Genes producing enzymes can be turned on or off to regulate enzyme concentration
In some cases a signaling molecule is used to activate an enzyme
What is enzyme inhibition
Occurs when enzyme is inactivated and cannot bind its substrate
What are enzyme cofactors
Molecules which help enzyme function
inorganic cofactors: inorganic molecules such as Copper and Zinc
What are the factors affecting enzymatic speed?
Temperature and pH
Oxidation-Reduction and the Flow of Energy
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox reaction)
Oxidation is the loss of electrons
Reduction is the gaining of electrons
O2: receives electrons (becomes negatively charged) and is reduced
Mg loses electrons (becomes positively charged) and is oxidized
explain organelles and the flow of energy
Cycling of molecules between chloroplasts and mitochondria allows energy to flow from sun to all living things
Chloroplasts use light energy from the sun to make carbohydrates
Mitochondria break down carbohydrates to form ATP
Cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide and water which are used in photosynthesis
What is entrophy
refers to the relative amount of disorganization
What is a substrate?
The reactants in enzymatic reaction
What is a catalyst?
: participate in reaction but not used up by the reaction; reused
What is a coenzyme?
Organic non-protein cofactors
Vitamins are often components of coenzymes
Vitamin is part of coenzyme NAD
Recommended textbook explanations
Modern Biology: Student Edition
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Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Biology The Dynamics of Life
Biology Exploring Life
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