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22 terms

BSC 1105 Test 3

STUDY
PLAY
Gene
A series of organic bases linked together that carry hereditary traits.
Allele
Two genes that, together, show a trait
Haploid
The set number of chromosomes in an organism
Diploid
Half the set number chromosomes in an organism
Homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
Regulator Gene
Carry hereditary information and regulate cell function
Operator Gene
Controls the function of the regulator genes. Two types: Operon, which causes function and Reperson, which ceases function.
Stages in Mitosis
Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase,
Interphase
Cell stops all metabolic function and prepares to divide
Prophase
Nuclear membrane disappears and chromosomes appear. Chromosomes divide and produce sister chromatids. Spindle fibers form.
Metaphase
Sister chroma tides line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase
Sister chromatids separate into chromosomes and migrate to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase
Cytokinesis is completed. A new nucleus forms around the chromosomes and spindle fibers disappear. Plant cells form cell wall.
Differences between Animal and Plant Mitosis
~Centrioles not in plant cells
~Cell wall in plant cells, pinching of cytoplasm in animal cell ~Splitting of cell wall in plant cell
Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis: used for asexual reproduction/starts with diploid, ends with diploid.
Meiosis: used for sexual reproduction/starts with diploid, ends with haploid
Reproductive Division
The other name for Meiosis
Stages in Meiosis
Meiosis 1: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Meiosis 2: Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2
Meiosis 1
Diploid parent cell divides into two haploid daughter cells,but the new daughter cells are not identical to the parent cell
Meiosis 2
A. Each daughter cell produced in Meiosis 1 undergoes mitotic division.Each cell will produce two daughter cells each with a haploid number of chromosomes.
Sickle Cell Anemia
a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape. Symptoms: Pain in joints, pain in abdomen, possible convulsion, and damage to liver, heart, or spleen.
Cystic Fibrosis
a human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele that should help in absorbing water; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated (4% whites are carriers - most common lethal genetic disease)