Fluid present in the anterior & posterior chambers of the eye. It is an alkine, watery fluid that helps give the cornea its curved shape; it is secreted by the ciliary processes (can be reproduced).
Clear, jelly-like substance that maintains IOP to stabilize & support the retina; found in posterior cavity. CANNOT be replaced.
Surgery done on the eyelids - done to correct ptosis , remove fatty bulges around the eyes, and eliminate hanging skin from the eyelids.
Scleral Buckling Component (explant)
A peice of silicone sponge, or band. Used to fix retinal tears.
Clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Mostly related to aging - common in older people.
Small cyst of the upper or lower eyelid caused by chronic inflammation & blockage of a sebaceceous gland (meibomian gland) in the eyelid.
A thin vascular layer between the sclera and the retina. It supplies blood/nutrients to the retina and conducts arteries and nerves to other structures in the eye.
Removal of the globe, orbital contents, muscles and part of the bony orbit. Poss. eyelid
Increased IOP caused by obstruction in the flow of aqueous humor and the leading cause of blindness.
The system that forms tears, conveys and drains the tears. Lacrimal glands (peach above eyelid), exit ducts (blue in nose), lacrimal canals, nasolacrimal duct.
Pupil-constricting agents that act on the sphincter of the iris. Can be injection or topical.
A winglike triangular fleshy growth that begins at medial canthus and extends over conjunctiva
A sensory nerve continuous with the posterior of the retina, respoinsible for sensation to touch and pain.
firm fibrous membrane, white (except where muscles attach) outer coat over the eyeball. Serves to maintain the form of the globe, also known as the outermost tunic of the eye.
A common form of visual impairment in which part of an image is blurred, due to an irregularity in the curvature of the cornea.
creation of a bypass between the angle of the anterior chamber & subconjunctival space
Extrascapular cataract extraction (ECCE)
Small incision in the anterior capsule - The lens is expressed or removed with Kirby lens loop. Adv. post. lens cap. provides barrier to protect vitreous. Dis. longer recovery.
The 6 muscles of the eye that come from the bones of the orbit and functions of move the eye. The muscles are: Lateral rectus, Inferior rectus, Superior rectus, medial rectus, Inferior oblique, and Superior oblique.
peripheral iridectomy (PI)
Removal of a section of the iris to reestablish the outflow of aqueous humor relieve the pressure buildup that occurs in patients with glaucoma.
What size & type of suture is used to close the corneal incision for an Iridectomy?
10-0 nylon or vicryl
Hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows the transmission of light to enter the retina.
Name the 7 bones that form the orbit.
Frontal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Superior Maxillary, Malar (zygotmatic), Lacrimal, and Palate.
Describe the location and function of the crystalline lens.
The lens is situated behind the pupil, in front of the vitreous body. It forms the posterior chamber of the eye and focuses images for the retina.
Important for seeing shades of gray (black & white) in dim light and for seeing general shapes or outlines.
Why does the increase of IOP lead to blindness?
The pressure causes atrophy of the optic nerve which leads to central vision loss and if not treated to blindness.
Describe two types of cataract formation.
1) primary: congenital or aging (60-80 yrs.)
2) secondary: trauma or disease (diabetes)
What happens when a large retinal detachment occurs?
The retina separates from the choroid of the eye. The entire retina will detach = loss of vision.
Explain why a patient may see "spots" or "flashes" of light with the development of renal detachment.
It's caused by the tugging(flashes of light) of the vitreous where it is attached to the retina. As it pulls away, fluid becomes condensed and stringy which is seen as spots.
What condiditon causes dacryocysitis and how is it fixed?
Obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct = inflammation of the lacrimal sac. Dacryocystostomy: I&D
What is strabismus?
Misalignment or deviation of the eyes that normally work simultaneously to track visual objects. "crossed eyes" "wall eyes" "lazy eye"
Vitreous substitute- keeps chamber from collapsing, and prevents formation of adhesions.
Why are powder free gloves typically used for eye surgery?
Because the powder from the gloves can create corneal irritation.
How is cryotherapy used to treat retinal detachment?
Scleral buckle- By freezing the break to prevent it progressing to a full-scale detachment, explant is silicone sponge or rod
deliberate removal of a portion of the vitreous humor because of vitreal hemorrhages or retinal detachment
What procedure is used to open up blocked tear ducts?
lacrimal probing - A probe is inserted through the tear duct and saline in injected to dilate the duct open gradually
method which uses ultrasonic energy to break up the lens in a cataract extraction, incisions are self sealing. Adv. less time. Dis. cannot be used on everyone
What is a diathermy used in?
Scleral buckle procedure for retinal tear. Explant is silicone sponge or band
What is a virtector used for?
suction/irrigator of vitreous it during a vitrectomy (cataract removal)
What is the purpose of applying fluorescein to the cornea?
It's a diagnostic tool used in diagnosing corneal abrasions.
Where is the lacrimal gland located?
Located within the upper eyelid near the outer angle of the orbit.
The lacrimal sac narrows into the____________ _______which empties into the_________ ________ of the nose.
nasolacrimal duct; inferior meatus
the colored portion of the eye, an intrinsic muscle that regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil.
The space bound anteriorly to the iris and posteriorly to the cornea. Located in the anterior cavity, filled with aqueous humor
Small space directly posterior to iris, but anterior to the lens within the anterior cavity.
Performed to establish a new pathway for tear drainage from the lacrimal sac to the middle meatus of the nose. 4% cocaine is used as a topical anesthetic
A resection done for strabisimus correction stregthens the ________ _________ by removing a section.
Path of tears:
lacrimal gland; conjunctival sac; lacrimal puncta; lacrimal canaliculi; lacrimal sac; nasolacrimal duct; inferior meatus
Delicate nervous memmrane, consists of 2 parts: pigmented layer that absorbes light & neutral layer that responds to light. Contains photoreceptors rods & cones.
Lies in front of the lens and contains two chambers: anterior & posterior chambers. Filled with aqueous humor.
Larger then the anterior cavity, occupies all space posterior to the lens, sepensory liogaments, and ciliary body. Contains vitreous humor.
What is an ocutome used for?
Cuts the vitreous and aspires it during a vitrectomy (retinal detachment)
Dissolves zonules (thickened radial fibers in posterior cavity); relaxes muscles
Opening of a congenital membrane from the iris surface to schwalbe's line causing cangenital glaucoma
What two structures of the middle tunic cause the eyes to contract and expand because of light?
Iris and pupil